One basic requirement for an identity management system is the ability to provision resources to an external system.
This guide walks you through the main building blocks that are involved in the process of provisioning groups from Microsoft Forefront™ Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 to Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS), outlines how you can verify whether your scenario works as expected, provides suggestions for managing Active Directory groups by using FIM, and lists additional sources for information.
In this section, you will find information about the scope of this document.
In general, "How Do I" guides are targeted at readers who already have basic experience with the process of synchronizing objects with FIM as covered in the related Getting Started Guides.
This guide is intended for information technology (IT) professionals who already have a basic understanding of how the FIM synchronization process works and are interested in getting hands-on experience and more conceptual information about specific scenarios.
This document assumes that you have access to a running instance of FIM 2010 and that you have experience in configuring simple synchronization scenarios as outlined in the following documents:
The content in this document is scoped to function as an extension to these introductory documents.
The scenario outlined in this document has been simplified to address the requirements of a basic lab environment.
The focus is to give you an understanding of the concepts and technologies discussed.
This document helps you develop a solution that involves managing groups in AD DS by using FIM.
The procedures in this document require 120 to 150 minutes to complete.
These time estimates assume that the testing environment is already configured and does not include the time required to set up the test environment.
If you have questions regarding the content of this document or if you have general feedback you would like to discuss, feel free to post a message to the Forefront Identity Manager 2010 forum.
Fabrikam, a fictitious company, is planning to use FIM to manage the groups in the corporation’s AD DS by using FIM.
As part of this process, Fabrikam needs to provision groups to AD DS.
To start with the initial testing, Fabrikam has installed a basic lab environment that consists of FIM and AD DS.
In this lab environment, Fabrikam is testing a scenario that consists of a group that was manually created in the FIM Portal.
The objective of this scenario is to provision the group to AD DS.
When managing groups with FIM, you should first test the synchronization of the group objects, and then add an attribute flow mapping for the member attribute.
This approach simplifies the process of troubleshooting your environment.
The scenario outlined in this document follows this recommendation.
After provisioning a test security group to AD DS, the scenario will be extended with a flow of the member attribute.
To use this guide, you need three architectural components:
The following illustration outlines the required environment:
You can run all components on one computer.
The following table lists the components that are part of this scenario in this guide.
The scenario outlined in this guide consists of the following building blocks:
In this section, you will find instructions for the resources that you need to create that are outside of your FIM environment.
You need the organizational unit as a container for the provisioned sample user.
For the scenario in this guide, you need two Active Directory user accounts:
In both cases, it is sufficient to create regular user accounts.
More information about the specific requirements of both accounts is found later in this document.
For the configuration steps in this section, you need to start the FIM Synchronization Service Manager.
For the scenario in this guide, you need to create two management agents:
When you configure a management agent for AD DS, you need to specify an account that is used by the management agent in the data exchange with AD DS.
You should use a regular user account.
However, to import data from AD DS, the account must have the right to poll changes from the DirSync control.
If you want your management agent to export data to AD DS, you need to grant the account sufficient rights on the target organizational units.
For more information about this topic, see Configuring the ADMA Account.
To create a group in AD DS, technically, you are required to flow out the object's DN and the groupType.
In addition to this, it is a good practice to flow:
In AD DS, it is still common for users to use the sAMAccountName attribute to log on to the directory service.
If you do not specify a value for this attribute, the directory service generates a random value for it.
However, these random values are not user friendly, which is why a user-friendly version of this attribute is typically part of an export to AD DS.
To enable a user to log on to AD DS, you also need to include a password created by using the unicodePwd attribute in your export logic.
When you set a password for AD DS accounts, you also need to create an account as an enabled account.
You accomplish this by setting the userAccountControl attribute.
For more information about the userAccountControl attribute, see: Using FIM to enable or disable accounts in Active Directory.
The following table lists the most important scenario specific settings you need to configure:
When you configure a FIM Service management agent, you need to specify an account that is used by the management agent in the data exchange with the FIM Service.
You should use a regular user account.
The account must be the same account as the one you specified during the installation of FIM.
Using Windows PowerShell to Do a FIM MA Account Configuration Quick Test contains a script that you can use to determine the name of the FIMMA account name that you specified during setup and to test whether this account is still valid.
The following table lists the most important scenario specific settings you need to configure.:
The following table lists the run profiles you need to create for the scenario in this guide:
For the scenario in this guide, you need to configure a provisioning policy:
The objective of this provisioning policy is to bring groups into the scope of the AD User Outbound Synchronization Rule.
By bringing your resource into the scope of the synchronization rule, you enable the synchronization engine to provision your resource to AD DS according to your configuration.
To configure the FIM Service, navigate in Windows Internet Explorer® to http://localhost/identitymanagement.
On the FIM Portal page, to create the provisioning policy, go to the related pages from the Administration section.
To verify your configuration, you should run the Windows PowerShell Script to Document Your Synchronization Triple Configuration:
In AD DS, each group has a type and a scope. The group type is either security or distribution. Each group type can have three different scopes:
The following illustration shows the related configuration dialog for groups in AD DS:
The FIM schema defines two separate attributes to track the type and the scope information of a group.
However, in AD DS, only one attribute, groupType, is used to track this information.
When you configure an outbound synchronization rule for AD DS, you need to configure an outbound attribute flow mapping that merges the values for the type and the scope into one attribute value.
To calculate the required groupType value, you can use the following table:
In your export attribute flow mapping, you can use this table to define a universal custom expression that handles all cases for groups.
This custom expression consists of a nested IIF statement that differentiates on the first level between the two possible group types.
In a second step, the related scope value is determined within another nested IIF statement.
The following table shows the configuration of the related outbound synchronization rule:
The objective of the AD Provisioning Workflow is to bring the group into the scope of the Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule.
The following table shows the configuration:
The required MPR is of type Set Transition and triggers when a resource becomes a member of the All Groups set.
The following table shows the configuration:
The objective of the initialization phase is to bring your:
To synchronize group objects in your environment, you need to enable the following management policy rules:
The following table lists the run profiles that are part of the initialization phase.
The objective of this section is to test your actual configuration.
To test the configuration, you:
The following table lists the properties of the sample security group:
To provision the sample user to AD DS, two prerequisites must be satisfied:
To verify, whether the user is a member of the All Groups Set, you open the Set, and then click View Members.
To verify, whether the group is in the scope of the synchronization rule, you should open the group's properties in Advanced View.
The Expected Rules List attribute should list the Fabrikam Group Outbound Synchronization Rule.
The following illustration shows an example for this:
As an alternative, you can also use the script in Using Windows PowerShell to Display the Value of the ERL Attribute of a Group from the FIM ScriptBox.
Before you start a first synchronization cycle for a test object, you should track the expected state of your object after each run profile that you run in a test plan.
Your test plan should include next to the general state of your object (created, updated, or deleted) also the attribute values that you expect.
Use your test plan to verify your test plan expectations.
If a step does not return the expected results, do not proceed with to the next step until you have resolved the discrepancy between your expected result and the actual result.
To verify your expectations, you can use the synchronization statistics as a first indicator.
For example, if you expect new objects to be staged in a connector space, but the import statistics returns no "Adds", there is obviously something in your environment that does not work as expected.
While the synchronization statistics can give you a first indication of whether your scenario works as expected, you should use the Search Connector Space and the Metaverse Search feature of the Synchronization Service Manager to verify the expected attribute values.
To synchronize the user to AD DS, follow the steps below:
To accomplish these tasks, you run the following run profiles.:
After the import from the FIM Service database, Test Security Group and the ExpectedRuleEntry object that links Test Security Group to the AD Group Outbound Synchronization Rule are staged in the Fabrikam FIMMA connector space.
When you review the Test Security Groups' properties in the connector space, next to the attribute values that you have configured in the FIM Portal, you also find a valid reference to the ERE object.
The following screenshot shows an example for this:.
The objective of the delta synchronization run on your Fabrikam FIMMA is to perform several operations:
As already indicated by the synchronization statistics, a provisioning activity has taken place on the connector space of the Fabrikam ADMA.
When you review the metaverse object properties of Britta Simon, you find that this activity is a result of the expectedRulesList attribute that has been populated with a valid reference:
During the following export on the Fabrikam FIMMA, the synchronization rule status of Test Security Group is updated from Pending to Applied, which indicates that your outbound synchronization rule is now active on the object in the metaverse:
Because a new object has been provisioned to the ADMA connector space, you should have one pending export Add on this management agent.
By using the script called "Using Windows PowerShell to Display the Export Statistics of a Management Agent", you get one reported pending export Add for the Fabrikam ADMA:
In FIM, each export run requires a following delta import to complete the export operation.
The delta import that you run after a previous export run is known as a confirming import.
Confirming imports are required to enable the FIM Synchronization Service to make appropriate update requirements during successive synchronization runs.
To verify that your sample user has been provisioned to AD DS, you open the FIMObjects organizational unit.
Test Security Group should be located in it.
Because you have successfully synchronized a group object to AD DS, you are now ready to add more components to your synchronization logic.
This includes the:
The owner of a group and the member of a group have one thing in common—both attributes are reference attributes.
When you synchronize reference attributes in FIM, you need to ensure that both objects, the referencing attribute and the referenced attribute, are available in all layers of the synchronization service.
The synchronization service preserves existing reference relationships and also enforces referential integrity.
This means that the synchronization service ensures that the references of referencing objects are pointing to valid objects.
The following illustration outlines this process using the member attribute of a group:
Keeping references intact across the various data layers (connector space, metaverse, external system) involves a transformation of the reference value into a format that is used by each layer.
For example, in FIM, references are expressed in form of GUID values.
However, in AD DS, reference values are implemented in form of DNs.
During a synchronization run and also during an import from and an export to a data source, the synchronization engine applies the necessary transformation of the reference values.
While groups can contain groups as members, which is also known as group nesting, a group can also have users as members.
To preserve the references that point to user objects, you need to extend your synchronization logic with the components that are required to synchronize user objects.
In How Do I Provision Users to Active Directory Domain Services, you find the required deployment instructions for synchronizing user objects in your environment.
You should extend your group synchronization scenario with the user synchronization logic that is outlined in this document.
After implementing the synchronization logic for users, you should add the sample user Britta Simon as a member to the security group, add Britta to the owners of the groups, and make her the displayed owner.
After a synchronization cycle to AD DS, you find that Britta Simon is the new owner of the group:
In addition, you also find that Britta is a member of your sample security group:
For more information about reference attributes, see Design Concepts for Managing Reference Attributes.
The objective of this document is to introduce you to the main building blocks for synchronizing a group in FIM to AD DS.
In your initial testing, you should first start with the minimum of attributes that are required to complete a task and add more attributes to your scenario when the general steps work as expected.
Keeping the complexity to a minimal level simplifies the process of troubleshooting.
When you test your configuration, it is very likely that you delete and recreate new test objects.
For objects with a populated ExpectedRulesList attribute, this can result in orphaned ERE objects.
The article called "A method to remove orphaned ExpectedRuleEntry objects from your environment", describes how you can remove these objects from your test environment.
For a production environment, when you manage Active Directory groups by using FIM, you should consider including the following attributes into your synchronization logic: