According to your post, my understanding is that you wanted to know the best practices to deploy SharePoint Portal in different SharePoint environment.
If the site is not existing in the production server, we can save the site from the development server, and then import it to the production server.
But if the site is already existing in the production server, we should follow these steps to just add the taxonomy and content types to the production server:
Save the site from Dev as a template
Import the template as solution in Visual Studio
Remove unnecessary items from the solution(Please pay more attention on it. If a content type/list... in the solution is existing in the production site too, it will replace the
same object existing in the production after deployment)
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