When I do this, I lock out my current context (the account I've logged into my machine as). Some additional points:
The username part of the login (e.g., <domain_part>\<user_part>) is the same as my default context; so, assume I login to "domain_alpha" as "crazy_adam" and I'm attempting to start my executable as "domain_beta\crazy_adam".
There is no trust between "domain_alpha" and "domain_beta", and creating a trust relationship between the two domains is not an option.
If I attempt to run the command as a local (machine non-domain) user (with membership in the machine's Administrators group), I am able to connect without any issues.
The issue was quite precisely described in a post by Jason Folkens:
As alpha domain has the same account, the credential will be forwarded to alpha PDC for authentication and the account will be locked out due to bad password.
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I executed the test case from my initial note yesterday, and it launched the process without locking me out. Consequently, I was executing the test case solely to demonstrate the problem, which didn't occur. I'm not sure if the issue is intermittent or I
missed some other factor.
I'll conduct additional analysis and update this thread.