This is a glossary of acronyms used with Microsoft technologies. An acronym is an abbreviated term formed from the first letter (or first few letters) of several words. Many acronyms are used in Microsoft technologies, and new ones appear constantly. Often someone unfamiliar with the acronym does not even know what technology area it refers to. Many are used in all information technology.

2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

 


2

2FA

Acronym for 2 Factor Authentication. A variant of Multi-Factor Authentication. See MFA.

 


A

AA

Acronym for Anti-Aliasing

AAD

Acronym for Azure Active Directory. Active Directory Domain Services in the Windows Azure cloud. Windows Azure is the Microsoft cloud computing platform, and one of the services available is Active Directory.

AAD RM

Acronym for Windows Azure Active Directory Rights Management. See Azure Rights Management.

AADJ

Acronym for Azure Active Directory Join. See Azure AD Join on Windows 10 devices.

AAM

Acronym for Alternate Access Mappings. Directs users to the correct URLs during their interaction with Microsoft Office SharePoint Server. See Plan alternate access mappings (Office SharePoint Server).

AC

Acronym for Attribute Certificate. A digital X.509 document containing attributes associated with a user. Also the acronym for Authorization Certificate, where the associated attributes in the digital document are used mainly for authorization.

ACE

Acronym for Access Control Entry. Individual entries in a security descriptor (called an access control list or ACL). Specifies permissions granted or denied to trustees for the resource to which the ACE applies.

ACL

Acronym for Access Control List. A collection of Access Control Entries (ACE's) that specify the security applied to a resource.

ACS

Acronym for:

  • Access Control Service (Azure). From: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh147631.aspx : "Windows Azure Active Directory Access Control (also known as Access Control Service or ACS) is a cloud-based service that provides an easy way of authenticating and authorizing users to gain access to your web applications and services while allowing the features of authentication and authorization to be factored out of your code."
  • Audit Collection Services (SC Operations Manager). From: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb381258.aspx : "In Operations Manager 2007, you can use Audit Collection Services (ACS) to collect records generated by an audit policy and store them in a centralized database. By default, auditing is configured on individual computers and all events generated from an audit policy are saved to the local Security log of the audited computer. "

AD

Acronym for Active Directory. See Active Directory.

AD CS

Acronym for Active Directory Certificate Services. See Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) Overview.

AD DS

Acronym for Active Directory Domain Services. Microsoft's directory service product. See Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Overview.

AD FS

Acronym for Active Directory Federation Services. See Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) Overview.

AD LDS

Acronym for Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. This used to be called Active Directory Application Mode, or ADAM. A database for directory-enabled applications that do not need AD DS. See Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services Overview.

AD RMS

Acronym for Active Directory Rights Management Services. See Active Directory Rights Management Services Overview.

ADAC

Acronym for Active Directory Administrative Center. See Active Directory Administrative Center: Getting Started.

ADAL

Acronym for Windows Azure Active Directory Authentication Library. See Azure AD Authentication Library for .NET.

ADAM

Acronym for Active Directory Application Mode, now renamed Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS).

ADBA

Acronym for Active Directory Based Activation. See Active Directory-Based Activation Overview.

ADMT

Acronym for Active Directory Migration Tool. Toolset to facilitate migration and restructuring tasks in an Active Directory Domain Services infrastructure. See ADMT Guide: Migrating and Restructuring Active Directory Domains.

ADO

Acronym for ActiveX Data Objects. ADSI can act as an OLE-DB provider that allows database queries of Active Directory using ADO. Active Directory searches using ADO are only allowed in the LDAP namespace. ADO can also be used to access Microsoft Access databases, SQL Server databases, and even text files.

ADSI

Acronym for Active Directory Service Interface. A library of routines that provide an interface to various directory namespaces, such as Active Directory, the Windows NT SAM account database, Novell bindery, Novell NDS, and Internet Information Server (IIS).

ADUC

Acronym for Active Directory Users and Computers, the MMC snap-in used to manage objects in Active Directory. Besides users and computers, you can also use this tool to manage contacts, groups, containers, and Organizational Units.

ADWS

Acronym for Active Directory Web Services. A Windows service that provides a Web interface to Active Directory domainsActive Directory Lightweight Directory Services instances, and Active Directory Database Mounting Tool instances on a Windows Server 2008 R2 (or above) server. See What's New in AD DS: Active Directory Web Services.

AES

Acronym for Advanced Encryption Standard. A specification for the encryption of electronic data used by Kerberos. Supercedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

AGPM

Acronym for Microsoft Advanced Group Policy Management. Tool to manage Group Policy Objects (GPO). Part of the Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack (MDOP) for Software Assurance. See Overview Series: Advanced Group Policy Management.

AIA

Acronym for Authority Information Access. Points to the public key for the certificate authority (CA)  in AD CS. See AD CS: Authority information access locations should be included in the extensions of issued certificates.

AIK

Acronym for Windows Automated Installation Kit. See Windows Automated Installation Kit (Windows AIK).

AJAX

Acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. See Ajax (programming).

ALM

Acronym for Application Lifecycle Management. See Microsoft Application Lifecycle Management.

ANR

Acronym for Ambiguous Name Resolution, an efficient search algorithm in Active Directory that allows you to specify complex LDAP syntax filters involving multiple naming-related attributes in a single clause. The attributes must be ANR enabled in the directory schema. See Active Directory: Ambiguous Name Resolution.

ANSI

Acronym for American National Standards Institute. A private non-profit organization that oversees development of voluntary consensus standards in the United States. See American National Standards Institute.

AP

Acronym for Authentication Package. See Authentication Packages.

API

Acronym for Application Programming Interface. See Application programming interface.

App-V

Acronym for Microsoft Application Virtualization. See Microsoft App-V.

ARM

Acronym for Acorn RISC Machine or Advanced RISC Machine. A family of processors based on RISC architecture originally developed by Acorn Computers (now ARM Holdings). The RISC based design requires fewer transistors resulting in lower costs, reduced power consumption, and less heat. This makes ARM processors ideal for small battery powered devices. See ARM architecture.

ASCII

Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A character encoding scheme. See ASCII.

ASP

Acronym for Active Server Pages. Server-side script engine for dynamically generated web pages. Superseded by ASP.NET

ASP.NET

Acronym for Active Server Pages .NET. Framework based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR) to build dynamic web applications and services using any supported .NET language. Successor to ASP. See ASP.NET.

ASQ

Acronym for Attribute Scoped Query. See Performing an Attribute Scoped Query.

ASR

Acronym for Azure Site Recovery. See Microsoft Azure Site Recovery: Your DR Site in Microsoft Azure.

ATA

Acronym for Advanced Technology Attachment. Host adapter that allows a computer to communicate with a peripheral bus. See Parallel ATA. Also the acronym for Advanced Threat Analysis.

AVMA

Acronym for Automatic Virtual Machine Activation. See Automatic Virtual Machine Activation.

AWE

Acronym for Address Windowing Extensions. A Windows api that allows a 32-bit software application to access more physical memory than it has virtual address space. See Address Windowing Extensions.

AWS

Acronym for Amazon Web Services. See Amazon Web Services.

 

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B

B2B

Acronym for Business 2 Business. See Business-to-business.

B2C

Acronym for Business 2 Consumer. See Retail.

BAM

Acronym for Business Activity Monitoring. Software to monitor business activities. See Business activity monitoring.

Base64

Binary to text encoding scheme, according to a MIME specification. Encodes any binary string (a byte sequence of 8-bit padded ASCII characters) using a 64 character alphabet of printable characters. Used by the ldifde command line utility.

BCHR

Acronym for Buffer Cache Hit Ratio. Percentage of pages found in the buffer pool without incurring a read from disk or a database query. Ratio of the number of logical reads to the number of physical reads.

BCS

Acronym for Business Connectivity Services. A SharePoint feature. Formerly called Business Data Catalog. See Microsoft Business Connectivity Services (BCS) in SharePoint 2010.

BDC

Acronym for Backup Domain Controller. In NT domains there was one primary domain controller and zero or more backup domain controllers. The concepts no longer apply in Active Directory, which uses a multi-master database system where all domain controllers are are essentially equal.

BI

Acronym for Business Intelligence. See Business intelligence.

BIDS

Acronym for Business Intelligence Development Studio. See Business Intelligence Development Studio.

BIOS

Acronym for Basic Input/Output System. Computer firmware interface. See BIOS.

BITS

Acronym for Background Intelligent Transfer Service. See Background Intelligent File Transfer Service (BITS) Overview.

BKF

Acronym for Backup File. Proprietary files created by the Windows NT Backup Utility (NTBackup) in Windows NT and above. The files have the .bkf extension. See NTBackup.

BLOB

Acronym for Binary Large Object. A collection of binary data stored as a single entity in a database. See Binary large object.

BMC

Acronym for Baseboard Management Controller. See Baseboard management controller.

BMR

Acronym for Bare Metal Recovery. Or Bare Metal Restore. See Bare-metal restore.

BPA

Acronym for Best Practices Analyzer. A server management tool. See Best Practices Analyzer.

BRE

Acronym for Business Rule Engine, a BizTalk feature. See Business Rule Engine. Also the acronym for Business Rules Engine, a .NET compliant class library. See Business Rules Engine.

BSOD

Acronym for Blue Screen Of Death. The blue error screen displayed by some operating systems after encountering a critical system error. Usually, the system must be shut down.

BTDF

Acronym for BizTalk Development Framework.

BTS

Acronym for Azure BizTalk Services, a cloud-based integration service. See BizTalk Services.

BYO

Acronym for Bring Your Own.

BYOD

Acronym for Bring Your Own Device. See Bring your own device.

BYOK

Acronym for Bring Your Own Key. Also called Bring Your Own Encryption (BYOE). See Bring Your Own Encryption.

 

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C

CA

Acronym for Certificate Authority, or sometimes Certification Authority. An entity that issues digital certificates. See Certificate authority.

CAD

Acronym for Computer-Aided Design. See Computer-aided design.

CAL

Acronym for Client Access License. See Client access license.

CAML

Acronym for Collaborative Application Markup Language. An XML based markup language used in SharePoint. See Introduction to Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML).

CAPI

Acronym for the Microsoft CryptoAPI or Cryptographic Application Progamming Interface. Also known as MS-CAPI. An API in Windows operating systems for applications using cryptography.

CAS

Acronym for Client Access Server. An Exchange Server role that provides authentication, proxy, and limited redirection services. See Client Access server.

CB

Acronym for Current Branch. See Difference between LTSB, CB, CBB for Windows 10.

CBA

Acronym for Claims Based Access. Also Claims Based Authentication.

CBB

Acronym for Current Branch for Business. See Difference between LTSB, CB, CBB for Windows 10.

CDM

Acronym for Cloud and Datacenter Management. See Cloud and Datacenter Management System Center Update Rollup Improvements.

CDMA

Acronym for Code Division Multiple Access. A channel access method used in radio communications, particularly in mobile phone standards. See Code division multiple access.

CDN

Acronym for Content Delivery Network. See Content Delivery Network.

CDP

Acronym for CRL Distribution Point. Location where the Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is maintained, allowing clients to determine if a certificate has been revoked.

CIL

Acronym for Common Intermediate Language. Lowest level human readable programming language, defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Used by the .NET Framework and produced by .NET compilers. Independent of CPU or higher level languages. Intermediate between assembly language and modern programming languages. Formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language, or MSIL. See Common Intermediate Language.

CIM

Acronym for Common Information Model. The repository in the WMI schema that stores class definitions that model WMI managed resources. See Common Information Model.

CLI

Acronym for Common Language Infrastructure. An open specification developed by Microsoft that describes executable code and the runtime environment. Allows multiple high level languages on different computer platforms without rewritting code for different architectures. The .NET Framework is an implementation of CLI. See Common Language Infrastructure.

CLR

Acronym for Common Language Runtime. A run-time environment provided by the .NET Framework which runs code and provides services that make the development process easier. See Common Language Runtime (CLR).

CMAK

Acronym for Connection Manager Administration Kit. Software for managing remote connections to the Internet or to private intranet sites and network. See Connection Manager Administration Kit.

CMDB

Acronym for Configuration Management DataBase. See Configuration management database.

CN

Acronym for Common Name in Active Directory. Also the moniker for objects with a common name in their distinguished names, for example "cn=Jim Smith,ou=West,dc=mydomain,dc=com".

CNA

Acronym for Converged Network Adapter, or converged network interface controller (C-NIC). Computer input/output device that combines a host bus adapter (HBA) with a network interface controller (NIC).

CNG

Acronym for Cryptography Next Generation. Cryptographic development platform introduced in Windows Server 2008 that implements the United States government's Suite B cryptographic algorithms. See Cryptography Next Generation.

COM

Acronym for Component Object Model. Standard for software components that enables interprocess communication and dynamic object creation in programming languages.

CP

Acronym for Claims Provider. See Claims Providers.

CPU

Acronym for Central Processing Unit. See Central processing unit.

CRL

Acronym for Certificate Revocation List. A list of certificates in a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) that have been revoked and should no longer be trusted. See Revocation list.

CRM

Acronym for Customer Relationship Management. See Customer relationship management.

CRUD

Acronym for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. See Create, read, update and delete.

CSE

Acronym for Client Side Extensions. A dynamic-link library (DLL) that implements a group policy on the client computer. See Client-side Processing of Group Policy.

CSOM

Acronym for Client Side Object Model. Provides client applications access to a subset of the SharePoint Foundation server object model. See Using the Client Object Model.

CSP

Acronym for Cloud Service Provider. See Cloud computing. Also the acronym for Cryptographic Service Provider, a software library that implements the Microsoft CryptoAPI (CAPI). See Cryptographic Service Providers. Also the acronym for Configuration Service Provider.

CSR

Acronym for Certificate Signing Request. In public key infrastructure (PKI) systems, a message sent from an applicant to a certificate authority (CA) in order to apply for a digital identity certificate. See Certificate signing request.

CSS

Acronym for Cascading Style Sheets. A style sheet language to format a document written in markup language. See Cascading Style Sheets.

CSV

Acronym for Comma-Separated Values. A plaintext file of records with fields separated by commas, or some other character. See Comma-separated values.

CTE

Acronym for Common Table Expression. In SQL Server Transact-SQL, a temporary named result set defined within the execution scope of a single SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or CREATE VIEW statement. A CTE is similar to a derived table in that it is not stored as an object and lasts only for the duration of the query. See Using Common Table Expressions.

CTP

Acronym for Community Technology Preview (or Customer Technology Preview). Often called the beta release in the software release life cycle. See Beta.

CU

Acronym for Cumulative Update.

CYOD

Acronym for Choose Your Own Device.

 

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D

DAC

Acronym for Dynamic Access Control. Provides data governance across file servers to control who can access information and to audit who has accessed information. See Dynamic Access Control: Scenario Overview.

DACL

Acronym for Discretionary Access Control List. See DACLs and ACEs.

DAG

Acronym for Database Availability Group. A high availablity feature of Exchange server. See Database availability groups.

DaRT

Acronym for Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset. Toolset to troubleshoot and repair Windows desktops. See Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset.

DAX

Acronym for Data Analysis Expressions. The native formula and query language for Microsoft PowerPivot and SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) Tabular models. See Data analysis expressions.

DBCC

Acronym for DataBase Console Commands. A series of Transact-SQL commands to check the physical and logical consistency of a Microsoft SQL Server database. See DBCC (Transact-SQL). Also acronym for DataBase Consistency Check, an SQL Server command line utility.

DBCS

Acronym for Double Byte Character Set. A character encoding in which all characters are encoded in two bytes. See DBCS.

DBE

Acronym for the SQL Server DataBase Engine. See Microsoft SQL Server and SQL Server Database Engine.

DBMS

Acronym for DataBase Management System. See Database.

DC

Acronym for Domain Controller in Active Directory networks. Also the moniker for Domain Component, as used in distinguished names (for example "dc=mydomain,dc=com").

DCaaS

Acronym for Data Center as a Service. Also the acronym for Data Consistency as a Service. See DCaaS: Data Consistency as a Service for Managing Data Uncertainty on the Clouds.

DCB

Acronym for Data Center Bridging. Enhancements to Ethernet Local Area Networks (LAN's) for use in data centers. See Data Center Bridging (DCB) Overview.

DCM

Acronym for Desired Configuration Management. See Overview of Desired Configuration Management.

DCOM

Acronym for Distributed Component Object Model. Microsoft technology for communication among software components distributed across networked computers. Extends COM. See Distributed Component Object Model.

DCTCP

Acronym for Data Center Transmission Control Protocol. See Data Center Transmission Control Protocol (DCTCP).

DDL

Acronym for Data Definition Language. Also Data Description Language. Syntax for defining data structures, especially database schemas. See Data definition language.

DDNS

Acronym for Dynamic Domain Name System, or Dynamic DNS. See Dynamic DNS.

DEP

Acronym for Data Execution Prevention. A security feature of an operating system to prevent errors and malware exploits. See Data Execution Prevention.

DER

Acronym for Distinguished Encoding Rules . See DER encoding.

DES

Acronym for Data Encryption Standard. A specification for the encryption of electronic data used by Kerberos. Superceded by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). See Data Encryption Standard.

DFL

Acronym for Domain Functional Level. Specifies the versions of Windows Server supported as domain controllers in the domain, and the features of Active directory that are available.

DFS

Acronym for Distributed File System. Client and server services that allow servers to organize distributed file shares into a distributed file system. See Distributed File System (Microsoft).

DFSR

Acronym for Distributed File System Replication. See Distributed File System Replication.

DHCP

Acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Service that provides centralized control of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DHCP servers assign dynamic IP addresses and TCP/IP settings to other computers. See DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Basics.

DISM

Acronym for Deployment Image Servicing and Management. A command line tool or PowerShell cmdlets to service Windows images. See What is DISM?

DIT

Acronym for Directory Information Tree. The Active Directory database file on a Domain Controller is referred to as the DIT. The file name is ntds.dit

DIY

Acronym for Do It Yourself.

DLL

Acronym for Dynamic Link Library. See Dynamic-link library.

DLP

Acronym for Data Loss Prevention. See Data loss prevention.

DMA

Acronym for Direct Memory Access. Allows computer hardware subsystems to access system memory independently of the central processing unit (CPU). See Direct memory access.

DML

Acronym for Data Manipulation Language. Syntax used for selecting, inserting, deleting and updating data in a database. See Data manipulation language.

DMV

Acronym for Dynamic Management Views, a feature of SQL Server. See Use Dynamic Management Views (DMVs) to Monitor Analysis Services.

DMZ

Acronym for DeMilitarized Zone. A perimeter network or subnetwork exposed to an untrusted network, such as the Internet, requiring special protection. See DMZ (computing).

DNF

Acronym for Do Not Forward.

DNS

Acronym for Domain Name System. The service that resolves computer names into IP addresses. See Domain Name System.

DNU

Acronym for DNX Utility.

DNVM

Acronym for Dot Net Version Manager. See Getting to the CRUX of DNVM, DNU and DNX in ASP.NET 5.

DNX

Acronym for Dot Net Execution Environment.

DOS

Acronym for Disk Operating System. Several Microsoft operating systems before Windows 95. See DOS.

DPM

Acronym for Data Protection Manager. See Data Protection Manager.

DQS

Acronym for Data Quality Services. See Introduction to Data Quality Services.

DRaaS

Acronym for Disaster Recovery as a Service. See Microsoft Case Studies.

DSA

Acronym for Digital Signature Algorithm. See DSA Class. Also acronym for Directory System Agent. See Directory System Agent.

DSC

Acronym for Desired State Configuration. See Get Started with Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration.

DSRM

Acronym for Directory Services Restore Mode. Used on Domain Controllers to take the instance of Active Directory on that computer offline, possibly for maintenance or troubleshooting. Requires a DSRM password.

DTC

Acronym for Distributed Transaction Coordinator. See DTC.

 

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E

EAC

Acronym for Exchange Administration Center. See Exchange Admin Center in Exchange 2013.

EAI

Acronym for Enterprise Application Integration. Framework of technologies and services that form a middleware to enable integration of systems and applications across the enterprise. See Enterprise application integration.

EAS

Acronym for Exchange ActiveSync. A client protocol that lets you synchronize a mobile device with an Exchange mailbox. See Exchange ActiveSync.

EB

Acronym for ExaBytes, or 1.1529 x 10^18 bytes (1024 PB). See Exabyte.

ECC

Acronym for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Public key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. Required by the United States government's Suite B effort. See Elliptic curve cryptography.

ECMA

Formerly the acronym for the European Computer Manufacturers Association, an international, private, non-profit standards organization. ECMAScript is a scripting language standardized by Ecma International, used for client-side scripting on the web using JavaScript, JScript, or ActionScript.

ECP

Acronym for Exchange Control Panel. See Understand and Use the Exchange Control Panel.

ECS

Acronym for Encryption Control System.

EDI

Acronym for Electronic Data Interchange. A document standard for eCommerce and transmitting documents. See Electronic data interchange.

EDP

Acronym for Enterprise Data Protection.

EDRM

Acronym for Enterprise Digital Rights Management.

EEPROM

Acronym for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.

EFS

Acronym for Encrypted File System, or Encrypting File System. See The Encrypting File System.

EHA

Acronym for Exchange Hosted Archive. See Exchange Hosted Archive (EHA) Quick Start Guide.

EKU

Acronym for Enhanced Key Usage. Also the acronym for Extended Key Usage. An extension that is a collection of object identifiers (OIDs) that indicate the applications that use the key. See Extended Key Usage.

EMC

Acronym for Exchange Management Console. An MMC to manage the configuration of Exchange. See Exchange Management Console.

EMET

Acronym for Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit. See The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit.

EMM

Acronym for Enterprise Mobility Management. Technology to manage mobile devices in an organization. See Enterprise mobility management.

EMS

Acronym for Enterprise Mobility Suite. See Enterprise Mobility for Every Business and Every Device.

EPROM

Acronym for Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.

ERP

Acronym for Enterprise Resource Planning. Business Management Software. See Enterprise resource planning.

ESB

Acronym for Enterprise Service Bus. Software architecture that implements the interaction and communication between applications in a service-oriented architecture (SOA).

ESE

Acronym for Extensible Storage Engine. The Jet-based ISAM data storage technology used in Active Directory and Exchange. Also called Jet Blue. Allows data storage and retrieval using indexed and sequential access. See Extensible Storage Engine.

ESP

Acronym for Enterprise Search Platform. See Fast Search & Transfer.

ESRI

Acronym for Environmental Systems Research Institute. International supplier of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, web GIS, and geodatabase management applications. See Esri.

ETL

Acronym for Extract, Transform, Load. A process in database usage to extract data from an external source, transform it to meet operational needs, then load it into a data store. See Extract, transform, load.

ETW

Acronym for Event Tracing for Windows. See Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) Simplified.

EWS

Acronym for Exchange Web Services. See Exchange Web Services (EWS).

EXO

Acronym for Exchange Online. See Exchange Online.

 

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F

FAS

Acronym for Filtered Attribute Set, the subset of Active Directory attributes that are not replicated to Read-Only Domain Controllers (RODC's). See RODC Filtered Attribute Set, Credential Caching, and the Authentication Process with an RODC.

FAST

Search Server for SharePoint. See Fast Search & Transfer.

FAT

Acronym for File Allocation Table. A legacy computer file system, largely used in small capacity USB storage devices and memory cards, supported by all the operating systems. See File Allocation Table.

FBL

Acronym for Farm Behavior Level.

FC

Acronym for Fibre Channel, a high-speed technology to connect data storage devices to the network. See Fibre Channel.

FCoE

Acronym for Fibre Channel over Ethernet. See Fibre Channel over Ethernet.

FCS

Acronym for Forefront Client Security. See Microsoft Forefront Client Security.

FEP

Acronym for Forefront Endpoint Protection. See Forefront Endpoint Protection Client.

FFL

Acronym for Forest Functional Level. Specifies the versions of Windows Server supported as domain controllers in the forest, and the features of Active Directory that are available.

FGPP

Acronym for Fine-Grained Password Policy. An Active Directory feature to specify multiple password policies. Allows application of different password restrictions and account lockout policies to different sets of users within a single domain. See AD DS: Fine-Grained Password Policies.

FIM

Acronym for Forefront Identity Manager. See Forefront Identity Manager.

FIMCM

Acronym for Forefront Identity Manager Certificate Management. See FIM CM Architecture.

FIPS

Acronym for Federal Information Processing Standards. Standards developed by the United States federal government for computer systems used by non-military government agencies and contractors. Many are modified versions of technical community standards, such as ANSI, ISO, or IEEE.

FOPE

Acronym for Forefront Online Protection for Exchange. See Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE) transition center.

FPE

Acronym for Forefront Protection for Exchange, a discontinued product.

FPSMC

Acronym for Forefront Protection Server Management Console. See Forefront Protection Server Management Console.

FPSP

Acronym for Forefront Protection for SharePoint. See Microsoft Forefront Protection 2010 for SharePoint.

FQDN

Acronym for Fully Qualified Domain Name. See Fully qualified domain name.

FSA

Acronym for FAST Search Authorization. A security module for FAST Search Server for SharePoint systems. See FAST Search Authorization (FSA) overview.

FRS

Acronym for File Replication Service. Service for distributing shared files and Group Policy Objects (GPO's). See File Replication Service.

FSE

Acronym for Forefront Security for Exchange. See Microsoft Forefront Security for Exchange Server.

FSMO

Acronym for Flexible Single Master Operator. These are roles that are assigned only to designated domain controllers, either one in each domain, or one in the forest. The five FSMO roles are:

FTP

Acronym for File Transfer Protocol, a standard protocol for transfering files from one network to another (such as the Internet). See File Transfer Protocol.

 

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G

GA

Acronym for General Availability. Software available for purchase by the public. After the Release To Manufacturing (RTM) stage.

GAC

Acronym for Global Assembly Cache. See Global Assembly Cache.

GAL

Acronym for Global Address List. See Global Address List.

GALSync

Acronym for Global Address List Synchronization. See Global Address List Synchronization (GalSync) Resources.

GB

Acronym for GigaBytes, or 1,073,741,824 bytes (1,024 MB). See Gigabyte.

GC

Acronym for Global Catalog. A read-only catalog of all objects in a forest, which contains a subset of the attributes. The subset of attributes is called the partial attribute set (PAS). A domain controller can be designated a GC.

GP

Acronym for Group Policy. See Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Group Policy Feature Set.

GPIO

Acronym for General-Purpose Input/Output. See General-purpose input/output.

GPMC

Acronym for Group Policy Management Console, the MMC used to manage group policy objects.

GPO

Acronym for Group Policy Object. See Group Policy Objects.

GPP

Acronym for Group Policy Preferences. See Group Policy Preferences Getting Started Guide.

GSM

Acronym for Global System for Mobile Communications. A standard to describe protocols for second generation digital cellular networks used by mobile phones.

GUI

Acronym for Graphical User Interface. See Graphical user interface.

GUID

Acronym for Globally Unique IDentifier. A 128-bit value that should uniquely identify an object. The value is usually displayed as 32 hexadecimal digits. Every object in Active Directory has an objectGUID attribute, which is the GUID of the object. See Globally unique identifier.

 

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H

HA

Acronym for High Availability. See High-availability cluster.

HAB

Acronym for Hierarchical Address Book. A feature in Microsoft Exchange 2013 and Outlook. See Hierarchical Address Books.

HAL

Acronym for Hardware Abstraction Layer. See Windows NT Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL).

HBA

Acronym for Host Bus Adapter. Connects a host computer system to other network or storage devices. See Host adapter.

HDD

Acronym for Hard Disk Drive. See Hard disk drive.

HNSC

Acronym for Host Named Site Collection. See Host Named Site Collections (HNSC) for SharePoint 2010 Architects.

HPC

Acronym for High Performance Computing. See Windows HPC Resource Kit for IT Professionals.

HPFS

Acronym for High Performance File System. File system for the OS/2 operating system, jointly developed by Microsoft and IBM. Improvement over the FAT file system, superseded by NTFS. See High Performance File System.

HSM

Acronym for Hardware Security Module. A physical device that safeguards and manages digital keys. See Hardware Security Module.

HTML

Acronym for HyperText Markup Language. Language for creating web pages. See HTML.

HTTP

Acronym for HyperText Transfer Protocol. An application protocol for information systems and data communication on the World Wide Web. See Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

HTTPS

Acronym for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. The result of layering HTTP on top of SSL/TLS to add security capabilities. See HTTP Secure.

HYOK

Acronym for Hold Your Own Key.

 

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I

IaaS

Acronym for Infrastructure as a Service. See Infrastructure as a service (IaaS).

IADs

Interfaces supported by ADSI. Exposes methods and properties of namespace objects. See IADs interface.

IAM

Acronym for Identity and Access Management. See Identity and Access Management.

IANA

Acronym for Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. A department of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation, that oversees global IP address allocation. Also root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS) and other Internet Protocol related symbols and numbers.

IAS

Acronym for Internet Authentication Server. Provides centralized authentication services in Windows Server operating systems. Replaced by Network Policy Server (NPS) in Windows Server 2008.

ICA

Acronym for Independent Computing Architecture. See Independent Computing Architecture.

ICANN

Acronym for Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names. A nonprofit private organization in the United States that oversees Internet related tasks. Operates the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

ICMP

Acronym for Internet Control Message Protocol. See Internet Control Message Protocol.

ICT

Acronym for Information and Communications Technology. See Information and communications technology.

IdAM

Acronym for Identity and Access Management. See Identity and Access Management.

IDE

Acronym for Integrated Drive Electronics. See IDE and ATA-1. Also Integrated Development Environment. See Integrated development environment.

IDMU

Acronym for IDentity Management for UNIX. See Installing Identity Management for UNIX.

IdP

Acronym for Identity Provider.

IE

Acronym for Internet Explorer. Microsoft's web browser product. See Internet Explorer.

IEEE

Acronym for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. A professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence that publishes numerous industry standards.

IETF

Acronym for the Internet Engineering Task Force. Develops and promotes Internet standards. See Internet Engineering Task Force.

IFM

Acronym for Install From Media, a feature for installing software or enabling features from media. See Installing AD DS from Media.

IIFP

Acronym for Identity Integration Feature Pack. See Identity Integration Feature Pack SP2 GalSync with Exchange 2007.

IIS

Acronym for Internet Information Services. Also sometimes referred to as Internet Information Server. See Internet Information Services (IIS).

ILM

Acronym for Identity Lifecycle Manager. See Identity Lifecycle Manager 2007 (ILM 2007) Technical Library.

IO

Acronym for Input / Output. Communication between a computer and other systems.

IOPS

Acronym for Input/Output Operations Per Second. A performance measurement for devices like disk drives.

IoT

Acronym for Internet of Things. The network of physical objects (things) embedded with software, sensors, and connectivity to enable the objects to exchange data with (and be remotely controlled by) the manufacturer, other objects, or the operator. See Internet of Things.

IP

Acronym for Internet Protocol. Networking model and communication protocols for the Internet. See Internet Protocol.

IPaaS

Acronym for Integration Platform as a Service. See Cloud-based integration.

IPAM

Acronym for IP Address Management. See  IP Address Management (IPAM) Overview.

IPD

Acronym for Infrastructure Planning and Design guide. Documents providing guidance on design of infrastructure for Microsoft products.

IPMI

Acronym for Intelligent Platform Management Interface. See Intelligent Platform Management Interface.

IPSec

Acronym for Internet Protocol Security. A protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications. See IPsec.

IPv4

Acronym for Internet Protocol version 4. The fourth version of the Internet Protocol. The successor protocol is IPv6.

IPv6

Acronym for Internet Protocol version 6. The latest version of the Internet Protocol. The successor to IPv4.

IRM

Acronym for Information Rights Management. See Information rights management.

IRP

Acronym for I/O Request Packet. Structures used by Windows Driver Model (WDM) and Windows NT device drivers to communicate with each other and the operating system. See IRP.

ISA

Acronym for Internet Security and Acceleration Server. See About Internet Security and Acceleration Server.

ISAM

Acronym for Indexed Sequential Access Method. A method of indexing data for fast retrieval. The Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) used in Active Directory is an implementation of ISAM. See ISAM.

ISAPI

Acronym for Internet Server Application Programming Interface. See Internet Server Application Programming Interface.

iSCSI

Acronym for Internet Small Computer System Interface. SCSI over IP networks.

ISE

Acronym for Integrated Scripting Environment. A graphical host application for Windows PowerShell.

ISO

Acronym for the International Organization for Standardization. See International Organization for Standardization. Also used as acronym for a disc image based on the ISO 9660 standard.

ISTG

Acronym for InterSite Topology Generator. Automatically creates connection objects in Active Directory between domain controllers to enable replication. See The Role of the Inter-Site Topology Generator in Active Directory Replication.

ISV

Acronym for Independent Software Vendor. See Independent software vendor.

IT

Acronym for Information Technology. See Information Technology.

ITU

Acronym for International Telecommunications Union. A specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for information and communication technology issues.

ITU-T

Acronym for International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector. One of the three sectors or divisions of ITU. Coordinates standards for telecommunications.

IW

Acronym for Information Worker. Also Knowledge Worker. See Knowledge worker.

IWA

Acronym for Integrated Windows Authentication. See Integrated Windows Authentication.

 

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J

JBOD

Acronym for Just a Bunch of Disks. An array of drives, each of which can be independently accessed directly. See JBOD.

JIT

Acronym for Just In Time.

JSOM

Acronym for JavaScript Object Model. See JavaScript Object Model.

JSON

Acronym for JavaScript Object Notation. A standard format that uses text files to transmit data objects of key:value pairs. An alternative to XML. See JSON.

JVM

Acronym for Java Virtual Machine. A virtual machine that can execute Java bytecode. See Java virtual machine.

JWT

Acronym for JSON Web Token. See JSON Web Token (JWT).

 

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K

KB

Acronym for Knowledge Base, as in a Microsoft knowledge base article. Also the acronym for KiloBytes, or 1024 bytes. See Kilobyte.

KCC

Acronym for Knowledge Consistency Checker. A process in Active Directory that automatically generates and maintains connection objects that describe which naming contexts should be replicated between which domain controllers and when. See KCC Replication Path Computation.

KCD

Acronym for Kerberos Constrained Delegation. See About Kerberos constrained delegation.

KDC

Acronym for Key Distribution Center. See Key distribution center.

KMS

Acronym for Key Management Service. A Windows service that allows organizations to manage the activation of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office. Eliminates the need for individual computers to connect to Microsoft for product activation. See Getting Started with KMS (Key Management Service).

KMSI

Acronym for Keep Me Signed In. See Simplified sign in with multiple accounts and shared PCs.

KSP

Acronym for Key Storage Provider. See CNG Key Storage Providers.

 

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L

LACP

Acronym for Link Aggregtation Control Protocol. See Link aggregation.

LAN

Acronym for Local Area Network. See Local area network.

LANMAN

Acronym for LAN Manager. A discontinued Network Operating System (NOS) based on the OS/2 operating system. See LAN Manager.

LAPS

Acronym for Local Administrator Password Solution. See Local Administrator Password Solution (LAPS) Now Available.

LBFO

Acronym for Load Balancing and Fail Over. Also called NIC teaming. See Overview of NIC Teaming (LBFO) in Windows Server 2012.

LCID

Acronym for LoCale Identifier. A 32-bit number where the lower 10 bits are a language code and the upper bits are a culture code. See Locale IDs Assigned by Microsoft.

LDAP

Acronym for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A language based on the X.500 directory standard that allows clients and servers to communicate. The LDAP provider allows access to the hierarchical structure of Active Directory, or any LDAP compliant database. The LDAP syntax is a filter syntax used to query LDAP compliant databases. See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

LDAPS

Acronym for LDAP over SSL. See LDAP over SSL (LDAPS) Certificate.

LDIF

Acronym for LDAP Data Interchange Format. A standard plain text data interchange format. Represents directory content as records for update requests. Used by the ldifde command line utility. See LDAP Data Interchange Format.

LDP

A graphical user interface (GUI) based LDAP client utility used to search, browse, and update LDAP compliant directories, such as Active Directory. See Ldp.

LOB

Acronym for Line Of Business. One or more related products that service a business function.

LPIM

Acronym for Locked Pages In Memory. See Support for Locked Pages on SQL Server Standard Edition (64-bit) systems.

LSA

Acronym for Local Security Authority. Windows NT security subsystem. See LSA Authentication.

LSASS

Acronym for Local Security Authority Subsystem Service. Process that enforces security policy on Microsoft Windows operating systems. See Local Security Authority Subsystem Service.

LTSB

Acronym for Long Term Servicing Branch. See Difference between LTSB, CB, CBB for Windows 10.

LUN

Acronym for Logical Unit Number. See Logical unit number.

LVR

Acronym for Linked Value Replication. In Active Directory, linked multi-valued attributes only replicate the updated values, rather than all values in the attribute. Requires Windows Server 2003 Interim mode or Windows Server 2003 Forest Functional Level or higher. When a non-linked multi-valued attribute is updated, the entire attribute must be replicated.

 

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M

MAC

Acronym for Media Access Control address (MAC address). A unique identifier assigned to a network interfaces for communications on a network segment.

MAK

Acronym for Multiple Activation Key. Starting with Windows Vista, Microsoft replaced VLKs with Multiple Activation Keys (MAK) or with Key Management Server (KMS) keys. See MAK & KMS.

MAM

Acronym for Mobile Application Management. Software and services for controlling access to internally developed and commercially available mobile applications. See Mobile application management.

MAP

Acronym for Microsoft Assessment and Planning. See Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit for Windows 8, Windows 7, and Internet Explorer.

MAPI

Acronym for Messaging Application Programming Interface. See Messaging Application Programming Interface.

MAPP

Acronym for Microsoft Active Protections Program. A program run by the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) to provide early access to security vulnerability information in advance of monthly updates. See Becoming a Member of MAPP.

MB

Acronym for MegaBytes, or 1,048,576 bytes (1,024 kilobytes). See Megabyte.

MBAM

Acronym for Microsoft Bitlocker Administration and Monitoring. See Microsoft BitLocker Administration and Monitoring.

MCC

Acronym for Microsoft Community Contributor. A Microsoft award to "recognize notable contributions to Microsoft online community forums such as TechNet, MSDN, O365 and Microsoft Community." See Differences Between the MVP and MCC Awards.

MCP

Acronym for Microsoft Certified Professional. See Microsoft Certified Professional.

MCSA

Acronym for Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate, a Microsoft certification. See Microsoft Certified Professional.

MCSE

Acronym for Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert, a Microsoft certification. See Microsoft Certified Professional.

MD4

Acronym for Message Digest version 4. A 128-bit cryptographic hash function. See MD4.

MDC

Acronym for Master Data Services. A feature of SQL Server. See Master Data Services.

MDM

Acronym for Mobile Device Management. A product for the administration of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops. See Mobile device management.

MDOP

Acronym for Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack. See Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack.

MDT

Acronym for Microsoft Deployment Toolkit. Formerly Microsoft Desktop Deployment. Software that permits network deployment of Windows and Office. See Microsoft Deployment Toolkit.

MDX

Acronym for Multidimensional Expressions, a query language for OLAP databases. See MultiDimensional eXpressions.

Med-V

Acronym for Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization. See Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization.

MFA

Acronym for Multi-Factor Authentication. Authentication that requires more than one verification method. Adds a second layer of security to logons. The verification methods can include: a password, biometrics, challenge response question, trusted device characteristics. A related concept is Two-Factor Authentication, or 2FA.

MIIS

Acronym for Microsoft Identity Integration Server. See Microsoft Identity Integration Server.

MIM

Acronym for Microsoft Identity Manager. The latest version of Microsoft’s Identity and Access management (IAM) product suite. See Microsoft Identity Manager.

MIME

Acronym for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. An Internet standard for email content. See MIME.

ML

Acronym for Machine Learning. See Machine learning.

MMC

Acronym for Microsoft Management Console. An extensible service for management applications. Provides a user interface allowing addition of snap-ins to manage services in a GUI console.

MOSS

Acronym for Microsoft Office SharePoint Server. See SharePoint 2007 products and technologies.

MPA

Acronym for Multi Page Allocator. See What causes Multi-Page allocations?

MPR

Acronym for Management Policy Rule. Mechanism for modeling business processing rules for incoming requests to a server running Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 R2. See Introduction to Management Policy Rules.

MPIO

Acronym for Multipath I/O. Multipathing solutions use redundant physical path components — adapters, cables, and switches — to create logical paths between the server and the storage device. See Multipath I/O.

MRS

Acronym for Mailbox Replication Service. Service on client access servers responsible for moving mailboxes, importing and exporting .pst files, and restoring disabled and soft-deleted mailboxes.

MSA

Acronym for Managed Service Account. See Introducing Managed Service Accounts. Also acronym for MicroSoft Account. Formerly known as a Windows Live ID and Microsoft Passport. See Microsoft account FAQ.

MSAL

Acronym for MicroSoft Authentication Library.

MSCEP

Acronym for Microsoft Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol. Implementation of SCEP available in Windows Server.

MSDN

Acronym for Microsoft Developer Network. See Microsoft Developer Network.

MSDTC

Acronym for MicroSoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator. A transaction manager in Microsoft SQL Server that allows client applications to include different sources of data in one transaction. See MS DTC Service.

MSE

Acronym for Microsoft Security Essentials. Free virus protection for Windows Vista and Windows 7. Replaced by Windows Defender in Windows 8.

MSIL

Acronym for Microsoft Intermediate Language (or simply IL). Lowest level human readable programming language, defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Used by the .NET Framework and produced by .NET compilers. Independent of CPU or higher level languages. Intermediate between assembly language and modern programming languages. Now called Common Intermeditate Language, or CIL. See CIL.

MSMQ

Acronym for MicroSoft Message Queuing. See Message Queuing (MSMQ).

MSRC

Acronym for Microsoft Security Response Center. See Microsoft Security Response Center. Microsoft security experts that identifies and responds to security incidents and vulnerabilities in Microsoft software. See Microsoft Security Response Center.

MTA

Acronym for Microsoft Technology Associate, a Microsoft certification. Also acronym for Message Transfer Agent, used for Microsoft Exchange communications. See Microsoft Certified Professional.

MUI

Acronym for Multilingual User Interface. See Windows MUI Knowledge Center.

MVC

Acronym for Model View Controller, three elements of ASP.NET MVC, a framework for building scalable, standards-based web applications. Architecture for implementing user interfaces. See Model–view–controller.

MVP

Acronym for Most Valuable Professional. A Microsoft award program to recognize "exceptional, independent community leaders who share their passion, technical expertise, and real-world knowledge of Microsoft products with others". See Most Valuable Professional.

MVVM

Acronym for Model View ViewModel. See Model View ViewModel.

 

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N

NAS

Acronym for Network Attached Storage. File-level computer data storage connected to a network. Provides data access to a group of clients. See Network-attached storage.

NAT

Acronym for Network Address Translation. Method to modify Internet Protocol (IP) datagram packet headers to remap one IP address space to another. See Network address translation.

NAV

Acronym for Microsoft Dynamics, formerly Navison. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software. See Microsoft Dynamics.

NBT

Acronym for NetBIOS over TCP/IP, sometimes also called NetBT. A networking protocol that allows legacy applications that rely on the NetBIOS API to work in TCP/IP networks. See NetBIOS over TCP/IP.

NC

Acronym for Naming Context. A partition (namespace) in Active Directory. Examples include the Schema container, Configuration container, the Domain Naming context for each domain, and any application partitions. See Naming Contexts and Directory Partitions.

NCQ

Acronym for Native Command Queuing. Technology built into SATA hard drives. See Native Command Queuing.

NCSI

Acronym for Network Connection Status Indicator. See The Network Connection Status Icon.

NDES

Acronym for Network Device Enrollment Service. A role service in Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS). See Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) in Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS).

NDS

Acronym for Netware Directory Services. Also Novell Directory Services. An X.500 compatible directory service product by Novell. Now called Novell eDirectory. See NetWare.

.NET

The .NET Framework is a programming model designed to replace the Win32 and COM APIs. The major components are the Common Language Runtime (CLR) and the .NET Framework class libraries.

NetBIOS

Acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System. Service allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a network. Uses NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) protocol. The NetBIOS name of a computer is generally the first 15 characters of the host name, followed by the "$" character. NetBIOS name to IP address resolution is provided by the WINS service on a WINS server.

NetBT

Acronym for NetBIOS over TCP/IP, also called NBT. A networking protocol that allows legacy applications that rely on the NetBIOS API to work in TCP/IP networks. See NetBIOS over TCP/IP.

NFC

Acronym for Near Field Communication. A set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them or bringing them into proximity. See Near field communication.

NFS

Acronym for Network File System. A distributed file system protocol. See Network File System.

NGC

Acronym for Next Generation Credentials. A service running on Windows 10. Provides process isolation for cryptographic keys used to authenticate users. See Hands-on Part 2 - Windows 10 Technical Preview.

NIC

Acronym for Network Interface Controller or Network Interface Card. Also called a network adapter or LAN adapter. Hardware that connects a computer to a computer network. See Network interface controller.

NIS

Acronym for Network Information Service. A client-server directory service protocol for distributed system configuration data, such as user and host names, between computers on a network. Replaced in many situations by Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) or Domain Name System (DNS). See Network Information Service.

NIST

Acronym for National Institute of Standards and Technology. Formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Measurement standards laboratory that promotes innovation and industrial competitiveness in the United States by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. See National Institute of Standards and Technology.

NLA

Acronym for Network Location Awareness. See Network Location Awareness Service Provider (NLA).

NLB

Acronym for Network Load Balancing. A clustering technology. See Network Load Balancing Technical Overview.

NOS

Acronym for Network Operating System. An operating system installed on a server that allows clients to communicate and share resources on the server. See Network operating system.

NPAR

Acronym for nPartitioning. See NPAR.

NPS

Acronym for Network Policy Server. Microsoft's implementation of Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS). Originally the Internet Authentication Server (IAS) role service (before Windows Server 2008). See Network Policy Server.

NSPI

Acronym for Name Service Provider Interface. A service on Global Catalog (GC) servers used for Microsoft Outlook Address Book lookups.

NT

Acronym for Windows NT, a family of Microsoft operating systems. NT originally was the acronym for New Technology. See Windows NT.

NTFRS

Acronym for NT File Replication Service. Service for distributing shared files and Group Policy Objects (GPO's). See File Replication Service.

NTFS

Acronym for New Technology File System. Microsoft proprietary file system that supersedes the FAT and HPFS file systems. The default file system on Windows operating systems since Windows NT. See NTFS.

NTLDR

Acronym for NT Loader. The boot loader for all versions of Window NT operating systems up to Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. See NTLDR.

NTLM

Acronym for NT LAN Manager. Microsoft protocols for authentication with backward compatibility with LANMAN. See NT LAN Manager.

NTP

Acronym for Network Time Protocol. Protocol for time synchronization between computer systems. See Network Time Protocol.

NUMA

Acronym for Non-Uniform Memory Access. A computer memory design used in multiprocessing. See Non-uniform memory access.

 

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O

O365

Acronym for Office 365. Microsoft Office 365 is a cloud-based service. See Office 365 Service Descriptions.

OA

Acronym for Outlook Anywhere. See Outlook Anywhere.

OAB

Acronym for Offline Address Book. See Offline Address Books.

OAuth

Acronym for Open standard for Authorization. A service that provides a method for clients to access server resources on behalf of a resource owner. See OAuth.

OCR

Acronym for Optical Character Recognition. See Optical character recognition.

OCS

Acronym for Office Communications Server. Server software for enterprise instant messaging, VoIP, and conferencing. Now called Microsoft Lync Server. See Microsoft Lync Server.

OCSP

Acronym for Online Certificate Status Protocol. Internet protocol for obtaining revocation status of X.509 digital certificates. See Online Certificate Status Protocol.

OCX

Acronym for OLE Control EXtension. OLE custom controls are usually shipped as a dynamic link library (DLL) with .ocx extension. See Object Linking and Embedding.

OData

Acronym for Open Data Protocol. A data access protocol. See Open Data Protocol.

ODBC

Acronym for Open DataBase Connectivity. Standard programming API for accessing database management systems (DBMS). See Open Database Connectivity.

ODFB

Acronym for One Drive For Business. See OneDrive.

OID

Acronym for Object IDentifier. For example, each attribute in the Active Directory schema has a unique X.500 OID (the value of the attributeID attribute of the attribute). All OID values created by Microsoft begin with 1.2.840.113556. OID values are also used to identify attribute syntaxes and filter matching rules. See Object identifier.

OLAP

Acronym for Online Analytical Processing. See Online analytical processing.

OLE

Acronym for Object Linking and Embedding. A Microsoft technology that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects. See Object Linking and Embedding.

OLE DB

Acronym for Object Linking and Embedding DataBase. Microsoft API to access data using Component Object Model (COM). See OLE DB.

OLTP

Acronym for On line Transaction Processing. Information systems that facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications. See Online transaction processing.

OME

Acronym for Office Message Encryption.

OMS

Acronym for Oerations Management Suite. A Microsoft cloud based service for IT management. OMS can integrate with System Center components such as System Center Operations Manager. See Operations Management Suite.

OOBE

Acronym for Out Of Box Experience. See Out-of-box experience.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Out-of-box_experience

OOM

Acronym for Out Of Memory. State of a computer operation where the program or operating system runs out of memory. See Out of memory.

OOP

Acronym for Object Oriented Programming. See Object-oriented programming.

OpenID

Acronym for Open standard for IDentification. Allows users to be authenticated by co-operating sites (relying parties) using a third party service. See OpenID.

OpenSSL

Acronym for Open Secure Sockets Layer. Open source implementation of SSL and TLS protocols. See OpenSSL.

OPK

Acronym for OEM Preinstallation Kit. See The Difference Between Windows Automated Installation Kit (AIK) and OEM Preinstallation Kit (OPK).

OS

Acronym for Operating System. See Operating system.

OSD

Acronym for On-Screen Display. See On-screen display.

OTP

Acronym for One Time Password. See Strong Authentication with One-Time Passwords in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.

OU

Acronym for Organizational Unit. Also the naming attribute for organizational unit objects in Active Directory, and the moniker used in their distinguished names (for example "ou=West,dc=mydomain,dc=com").

OWA

Acronym for Outlook Web App. Allows access to Exchange mailbox from a web browser. In Exchange 2003 this was called Outlook Web Access. See Understanding Outlook Web App.

OWIN

Acronym for Open Web Interface for .NET. A standard interface between .NET web servers and web applications. See OWIN.

 

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P

PaaS

Acronym for Platform as a Service. See Platform as a service.

PAC

Acronym for Privilege Attribute Certificate. A Kerberos Certificate that contains all security group memberships of the security principal that is requesting access to a resource. See Privilege Attribute Certificate Configuration.

PAE

Acronym for Physical Address Extension. A feature of 32-bit processors that allows them to access a physical address space larger than 4 gigabytes. See Physical Address Extension.

PAM

Acronym for Privileged Account Management.

PAS

Acronym for Partial Attribute Set. The subset of attributes of the objects replicated to the Global Catalog. See Active Directory: Attributes in the Partial Attribute Set.

PATA

Acronym for Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment, or Parallel ATA. See Parallel ATA.

PB

Acronym for PetaBytes, or 1.1259 x 10^15 bytes (1,024 TB). See Petabyte.

PC

Acronym for Personal Computer. A general purpose computer operated by an end-user with no intervening computer operator (as opposed to batch processing or time-sharing computers). See Personal computer.

PCI

Acronym for Peripheral Component Interconnect, a local computer bus for attaching devices. See Conventional PCI.

PCL

Acronym for Printer Command Language. See Printer Command Language.

PCNS

Acronym for Password Change Notification Service. Enables synchronization of passwords between Active Directory and other identity systems. See Password Change Notification Service.

PDC

Acronym for Primary Domain Controller. In NT domains there was one primary domain controller and zero or more backup domain controllers. The concepts no longer apply in Active Directory, which uses a multi-master database system where all domain controllers are essentially equal.

PDCe

Acronym for PDC emulator or Primary Domain Controller emulator. See PDC Emulator.

PDF

Acronym for Portable Document Format. See About Adobe PDF.

PDT

Acronym for PowerShell Deployment Toolkit. A set of PowerShell scripts for automatic deployment of System Center 2012 SP1/R2, including all SQL requirements and post-setup integration. See PowerShell Deployment Toolkit.

PDW

Acronym for Parallel Data Warehousing. See Microsoft SQL Server Parallel Data Warehouse (PDW) Explained.

PFE

Acronym for Premier Field Engineer, or Premier Field Engineering. See Premier Field Engineering (PFE).

PHP

A server-side scripting language designed for web development, called HyperText PreProcessor. Originally an acronym for Personal Home Page. See PHP.

PID

Acronym for Packet IDentifier. Also Product ID or Process ID.

PIN

Acronym for Personal Identification Number. A secret numeric password used to authenticate a user to a system. See Personal identification number.

PKCS

Acronym for Public Key Cryptography Standards. See PKCS.

PKI

Acronym for Public Key Infrastructure. Hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. See Public key infrastructure.

PLE

Acronym for Page Life Expectancy. The number of seconds a memory page will remain in the SQL Server buffer pool without references. See SQL Server Page Life Expectancy.

PnP

Acronym for Plug and Play. See Legacy Plug and Play.

PMI

Acronym for Privilege Management Infrastructure. Manages user authorization based on X.509 attribute certificates (ACs). See Privilege Management Infrastructure.

POP

Acronym for Post Office Protocol. An email protocol. See Post Office Protocol.

PPP

Acronym for point-to-Point Protocol. A data link protocol to establish a direct connection between tow nodes in a network. See Point-to-Point Protocol.

PPT

Acronym for PowerPoinT. Also the file format used by PowerPoint.

PRT

Acronym for Primary Refresh Token.

PSCX

Acronym for PowerShell Community Extensions. Cmdlets, filters, providers, functions, and scripts contributed by the community. See PowerShell Community Extensions.

PSO

Acronym for Password Setting Object. Objects in the System container of Active Directory that implement Fine-Grained Password Policies. See AD DS Fine-Grained Password and Account Lockout Policy Step-by-Step Guide.

PtH

Acronym for Pass the Hash. A credential replay hacking technique. See Pass the hash.

 

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Q

QoS

Acronym for Quality of Service. See Quality of service.

QR Code

Acronym for Quick Response Code. A two-dimensional matrix barcode. See QR code.

 

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R

RA

Acronym for Registration Authority. Verifies user requests for digital certificates and instructs the certificate authority (CA) to issue them. See Public key infrastructure.

RADIUS

Acronym for Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. Networking protocol for centralized authentication, authorization, and accounting. See RADIUS.

RADT

Acronym for Risk Assessment and Diagnostic Tool.

RAID

Acronym for Redundant Array of Independent Disks (originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks), a storage technology using multiple disk drives. See RAID.

RAM

Acronym for Random-Access Memory. Computer memory that can be read from or written to in an arbitrary sequence. See Random-access memory.

RAS

Acronym for Remote Access Service. Services to connect clients to a host, also called a remote access server. See Remote Access Service.

RBAC

Acronym for Role Based Access Control. See Role-based access control.

RBS

Acronym for Remote BLOB Storage. Optional component of SQL Server that allows storage of binary large objects in commodity storage solutions instead of directly on the main database server. See Remote BLOB Store.

RC

Acronym for Release Candidate. A beta version of software that is ready to be released as the final product (if there are no unexpected problems). The next stage would be Release to Manufacturing (RTM). See Software release life cycle.

RD

Acronym for Remote Desktop. See Remote Desktop Services Overview. Also the rd command line utility to remove a directory (short for remove directory).

RDMA

Acronym for Remote Direct Memory Access. Direct memory access from the memory of one computer into that of another without involving the operating system. See Remote direct memory access.

RDN

Acronym for Relative Distinguished Name. The name of an object in Active Directory relative to it's location in the hierarchical structure of Active Directory. The Relative Distinguished Name will be the lowest level component of the Distinguished Name (DN). The RDN must be unique in the parent container or Organizational Unit (OU), while the Distinguished Name will be unique in the forest.

RDP

Acronym for Remote Desktop Protocol. See Remote Desktop Protocol.

RDS

Acronym for Remote Desktop Services. See Remote Desktop Services.

RDSH

Acronym for Remote Desktop Session Host. See Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host).

ReFS

Acronym for Resilient File System. See Resilient File System Overview.

REST

Acronym for Representational State Transfer. See Representational state transfer.

RFC

Acronym for Requests for Comments. Publication of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Society. Memorandum describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet connected systems. See Request for Comments.

RFID

Acronym for Radio-Frequency IDentification. Wireless radio-frequency transfer of data to automatically identify tags attached to objects. See Radio-frequency identification.

RID

Acronym for Relative IDentifier. All security principals (users, computers, and groups) in Active Directory have a Security ID (SID). SID values include several components, including the RID. The SID without the RID is the same for all objects in a domain. The RID value uniquely identifies the object in the domain.

RISC

Acronym for Reduced Instruction Set Computing. A cpu design based on the concept that a simplified instruction set can result in high performance and faster execution. See Reduced instruction set computing.

RMS

Acronym for Rights Management Services. See Active Directory Rights Management Services.

RODC

Acronym for Read-Only Domain Controller. A domain controller that cannot be used to update objects in Active Directory. See AD DS: Read-Only Domain Controllers.

ROM

Acronym for Read Only Memory.

RP

Acronym for Relying Party. See Relying Party.

RPC

Acronym for Remote Procedure Call. See Remote procedure call.

RRAS

Acronym for Routing and Remote Access Service. See Routing and Remote Access Service.

RSAT

Acronym for Remote Server Administration Tools. See Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) for Windows Client and Windows Server (dsforum2wiki).

RSO

Acronym for ReplicateSingleObject. A Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC) can request replication of a specific object with functionality known as a Replicate-Single-Object operation. See replicateSingleObject.

RSoP

Acronym for Resultant Set of Policy. See Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP).

RSS

Acronym for Rich Site Summary, or often Really Simple Syndication. Standard web feed formats to publish frequently updated information. See RSS.

RT

Acronym for RunTime, as in Windows RT or WinRT. An edition of Windows only available pre-installed on PCs or tablets powered by ARM processors. Designed for improved battery life on thin, lightweight devices running cloud-enabled, touch-enabled, web-connected applications. Previously called Windows on ARM (WOA). See Windows 8 and 8.1 Preview, Editions (SKUs) and features.

RTM

Acronym for Release To Manufacturing. Software ready to be delivered. RTM is followed by General Availability (GA). See Software release life cycle.

RUS

Acronym for Recipient Update Service. Used by Exchange to generate and update default and customized address lists, and to process changes made to recipient policies. See Recipient Update Service.

RWDC

Acronym for Read-Write Domain Controller. A writeable domain controller, meaning it can be used to update objects in Active Directory. All domain controllers are writeable, unless they are a Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC).

 

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S

SaaS

Acronym for Software as a Service. See Software as a service.

SACL

Acronym for System Access Control List. See Access Control Lists.

SAM

Acronym for Security Account Manager, the Windows NT account database format. A Windows NT SAM account database exposes a flat namespace. See Security Accounts Manager.

SAML

Acronym for Security Assertion Markup Language. An XML based standard for exchanging authentication and authorization data between an identity provider and a service or application. See Security Assertion Markup Language.

SAN

Acronym for Storage Area Network. Remotely attached computer storage. See Storage area network. Also the acronym for Subject Alternative Name, or subjectAltName. An extension of X.509 that allows more than one value to be associated with a security certificate. Names can include email addresses, IP addresses, URIs, DNS names, directory names (DNs), or OIDs. See SubjectAltName.

SAS

Acronym for Serial Attached SCSI. A point-to-point serial protocol to move data to and from computer storage devices. See Serial attached SCSI.

Also, an acronym for Shared Access Signature. A URI that grants restricted access rights to containers, blobs, queues, and tables. See Delegating Access with a Shared Access Signature.

SASL

Acronym for Simple Authentication and Security Layer. A framework for authentication and data security on the Internet. See Simple Authentication and Security Layer.

SATA

Acronym for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, or Serial ATA. A computer bus interface to connect host bus adapters to mass storage devices. See Serial ATA.

SBS

Acronym for Small Business Server. An easy-to-use server solution designed and priced for small businesses. Now called Windows Server Essentials. See Windows Server Essentials (Small Business Server).

SBSL

Acronym for Slow Boot, Slow Logon. See Troubleshooting Slow Operating System Boot Times and Slow User Logons (sbsl).

SC

Acronym for System Center.

SCAC

Acronym for Standard Carrier Alpha Code. A code to uniquely identify transportation companies. See Standard Carrier Alpha Code.

SCAP

Acronym for Security Content Automation Protocol. See Security Content Automation Protocol.

SCCM

Acronym for System Center Configuration Manager. See System Center Configuration Manager.

SCDPM

Acronym for System Center Data Protection Manager. See Data Protection Manager.

SCEP

Acronym for Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol. Defines the communication between network devices and a Registration Authority (RA) for certificate enrollment. See Introduction to Endpoint Protection in Configuration Manager.

SCIM

Acronym for Simple Cloud Identity Management. See Simple Cloud Identity Management (SCIM).

SCM

Acronym for Security Compliance Manager. See Microsoft Security Compliance Manager (SCM). Also acronym for Source Code Management.

SCOM

Acronym for System Center Operations Manager. See System Center Operations Manager.

SCOR

Acronym for System Center Orchestrator. See Getting Started with System Center 2012 - Orchestrator.

SCP

Acronym for Service Connection Point object. An object that represents one or more instances of a service and is used to connect to the service. These are objects in Active Directory usually published under the computer object where the corresponding service is installed. Used to maintain information about the service. See Publishing with Service Connection Points.

SCSI

Acronym for Small Computer System Interface. Standards for transferring data between computers. See SCSI.

SCSM

Acronym for System Center Service Manager. See System Center Service Manager.

SCVMM

Acronym for System Center Virtual Machine Manager. See System Center Virtual Machine Manager.

SDDL

Acronym for Security Descriptor Definition Language. Defines the string format for security descriptors. See Security Descriptor Definition Language.

SDK

Acronym for Software Development Kit. See Software development kit.

SDS

Acronym for System.DirectoryServices namespace. The primary namespace used for code that targets Active Directory in the .NET Framework. See System.DirectoryServices Namespace.

SEO

Acronym for Search Engine Optimization. See Search engine optimization.

SfB

Acronym for Skype for Business. See Skype for Business.

SFTP

Acronym for Secure File Transfer Program. A command line utility to transfer files using SSH File Transfer Protocol. See Secure file transfer program. Also SSH File Transfer Protocol. A network protocol, designed by IETF, for file access, transfer, and management over a reliable data stream. See SSH File Transfer Protocol.

SID

Acronym for Security IDentifier. All objects in Active Directory that are security principals (users, computers, groups) have the objectSID attribute, which is a SID. The SID uniquely identifies the object for security permissions. The SID value includes several components, including a RID (Relative ID). The SID without the RID is the same for all objects in the domain. Each object in an Active Directory domain has its own unique RID value.

SIEM

Acronym for Security Information and Event Management. See Security information and event management.

SKU

Acronym for Stock-Keeping Unit. Unique identifier for each distinct product and service. See Stock keeping unit.

SMB

Acronym for Server Message Block. An application-layer network protocol for providing shared access to files, printers, serial ports, other nodes on a network. Used in Microsoft Windows Networks before Active Directory. See Server Message Block. Also acronym for Small and Medium sized Businesses. See Small and medium enterprises.

SME

Acronym for Subject Matter Expert. See Subject-matter expert.

SMO

Acronym for Social Media Optimization. See Social media optimization.

SMS

Acronym for Short Message Service. A text messaging service. See Short Message Service.

SMTP

Acronym for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Internet standard for electronic mail over IP networks. See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

SNTP

Acronym for Simple Network Time Protocol. A less complex implementation of NTP. See SNTP.

SOA

Acronym for Service Oriented Architecture. Software architecture where discrete pieces of software provide application functionality as services to other applications. See Service-oriented architecture. Also acronym for Start Of Authority. Records created by Read-Only Domain Controllers for read-only DNS zones.

SOAP

Acronym for Simple Object Access Protocol. XML messaging framework. See Understanding SOAP.

SoFS

Acronym for Scale-out File Services. Scalable, grid-based NAS implementation developed by IBM. See SoFS.

SP

Acronym for Service Pack. See Service pack.

SPA

Acronym for Single Page Allocator. See What causes Multi-Page allocations?. Also acronym for Single Page Application. See ASP.NET - Single-Page Applications: Build Modern, Responsive Web Apps with ASP.NET.

SPF

Acronym for Service Provider Foundation. Provided with System Center 2012 - Orchestrator. Exposes an extensible OData web service that interacts with Virtual Machine Manager (VMM). See Service Provider Foundation. Also acronym for Sender Policy Framework. An email validation system to help detect spoofing and ensure the message was sent from a host authorized by Administrators. See Sender Policy Framework.

SPN

Acronym for Service Principal Name. The name by which a client uniquely identifies an instance of a service. Each instance of a service must have its own SPN, but a given service instance can have multiple SPNs. See Service Principal Names.

SPO

Acronym for SharePoint Online. See SharePoint Online.

SQL

Acronym for Structured Query Language. See SQL.

SQLIO

Acronym for SQL Server Input Output. A tool developed by Microsoft to to determine the I/O capacity of a given configuration of SQL Server. See SQLIO.

SR-IOV

Acronym for Single Root I/O Virtualization. An extension to the PCI Express (PCIe) specification, that allows a device to separate access to resouces among PCIe hardware functions. See Overview of Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV).

SSAS

Acronym for SQL Server Analysis Services. See Microsoft Analysis Services.

SSD

Acronym for Solid State Drive. See Solid-state drive.

SSDT

Acronym for SQL Server Data Tools. See SQL Server Data Tools (SSDT).

SSH

Acronym for Secure SHell. A cryptographic protocol for shell based sessions on remote machines. See Secure Shell.

SSIS

Acronym for SQL Server Integration Services. See SQL Server Integration Services.

SSL

Acronym for Secure Sockets Layer. Cryptographic protocols to provide secure communications over the Internet. See Transport Layer Security.

SSMS

Acronym for SQL Server Management Studio. See Use SQL Server Management Studio.

SSO

Acronym for Single Sign On. A Property of access control of multiple related but independent software systems that allows users to logon once and gain access to all systems without being prompted to logon again. See Single sign-on.

SSP

Acronym for Shared Service Provider.

SSPI

Acronym for Security Support Provider Interface. An API for integrated security services authentication, message integrity, message privacy, and security quality of service. See The Security Support Provider Interface.

SSPR

Acronym for Self Service Password Reset. Process that allows users to reset their own password, usually by answering a series of questions or responding to an email. See Self-service password reset.

SSRS

Acronym for SQL Server Reporting Services. See SQL Server Reporting Services.

 

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T

TAM

Acronym for Technical Account Manager.

TB

Acronym for TeraBytes, or 1.0995 x 10^12 bytes (1,024 GB). See Terabyte.

TCO

Acronym for Total Cost of Ownership. A financial estimate of direct and indirect costs of a product or system. See Total cost of ownership.

TCP

Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. Networking model and communication protocols for the Internet. See Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP

Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Networking model and communication protocols for the Internet. See How TCP/IP Works.

TCQ

Acronym for Tagged Command Queuing. Technology built into ATA and SCSI hard drives. See Tagged Command Queuing.

TFS

Acronym for Team Foundation Server. See Team Foundation Server.

TFVC

Acronym for Team Foundation Version Control. See Use Team Foundation Version Control.

TGS

Acronym for Ticket Granting Service. See Kerberos (protocol).

TGT

Acronym for Ticket Granting Ticket. Encrypted file granting access for a user to data protected by a Key Distribution Center (KDC). Contains session key, expiration date, and user IP Address. See Ticket Granting Ticket.

TLG

Acronym for Test Lab Guide. See Test Lab Guides.

TLS

Acronym for Transport Layer Security. Cryptographic protocols to provide secure communications over the Internet. See Transport Layer Security.

TOU

Acronym for Terms Of Use. Terms a customer agrees to before they can use a service or product. See Terms of service.

TMG

Acronym for Threat Management Gateway, a discontinued product. See Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway.

TNWiki

Acronym for TechNet Wiki. A library of information about Microsoft technologies inspired by Wikipedia, written by the community for the community. See Wiki: About TechNet Wiki.

TPM

Acronym for Trusted Platform Module. An international standard for a secure cryptoprocessor. See Trusted Platform Module.

TS

Acronym for Terminal Services. Known as Remote Desktop Services after Windows Server 2008. See Remote Desktop Services.

T-SQL

Acronym for Transact-SQL. Query language for SQL Server. See Transact-SQL.

TTL

Acronym for Time To Live. The length of time during which a setting remains valid or before a timeout expires. See Time to live.

TUD

Acronym for Trusted User Domain. See Trusted User Domain.

 

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U

UAC

Acronym for User Account Control. A Windows feature introduced in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 that alerts the user about any actions on the client requiring administrator privileges. If the current user's account has administrative privileges on the local computer, they can consent to the action. Otherwise, someone must enter administrator credentials before the action can proceed. See What is User Account Control?

UAG

Acronym for Unified Access Gateway. See Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG).

UDF

Acronym for User Defined Function. See User-defined function.

UDP

Acronym for User Datagram Protocol, a TCP/IP standard. See User Datagram Protocol.

UEFI

Acronym for Unified Extensible Firmware Interface. Specification that defines software interface between an operating system and firmware. Replaces Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) firmware interface. See Unified Extensible Firmware Interface.

UE-V

Acronym for Microsoft User Experience Virtualization. See High-Level Architecture for UE-V 1.0.

UI

Acronym for User Interface. See User interface.

UML

Acronym for Unified Modeling Language or Universal Markup Language. See UML.

UNC

Acronym for Universal Naming Convention or Uniform Naming Convention. Syntax to describe the location of a network resource, such as a file or printer. Also called the network path. The UNC syntax for Windows is in the form file:///ShareName/ResourceName. See Path (computing).

UPA

Acronym for User Profile Application. Also User Profile Service Application. A feature of SharePoint Server that stores information about users in a central location. See Overview of the User Profile service application in SharePoint Server 2013 and Create, edit, or delete User Profile service applications in SharePoint Server 2013.

UPN

Acronym for User Principal Name, or the userPrincipalName attribute in Active Directory.

URI

Acronym for Uniform Resource Identifier. A string of characters to identify a web resource. See Uniform resource identifier.

URL

Acronym for Uniform Resource Locator. A web address. A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that identifies a web resource and specifies the means to act upon it. See Uniform resource locator.

URN

Acronym for Uniform Resource Name. A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that identifies a resource by name in a namespace. See Uniform resource name.

USB

Acronym for Universal Serial Bus. See USB.

USMT

Acronym for User State Migration Tool. See User State Migration Tool.

USN

Acronym for Update Sequence Number. See update sequence number (USN).

UTC

Coordinated Universal Time. The acronym is a compromise between the English "Coordinated Universal Time" (or Universal Time Coordinated) and the French "Temps Universel Coordonné" (or Universel Temps Coordonné). Formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The time standard by which clocks and time are regulated throughout the world. See Coordinated Universal Time.

UTDV

Acronym for Up-To-Datedness Vector. See Tracking Updates.

UUID

Acronym for Universally Unique IDentifier. A standard for identification in software to enable distributed systems to uniquely identify objects without central coordination. In Microsoft Windows platforms these are knows as GUIDs. See Universally unique identifier.

UWP

Acronym for Universal Windows Platform. See Guide to Universal Windows Platform (UWP) apps.

UX

Acronym for User eXerience. See User experience.

 

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V

VAMT

Acronym for Volume Activation Management Tool. See Introduction to VAMT.

VAN

Acronym for Value Added Network. See Value-added network.

VAR

Acronym for Value-Added Reseller. See Value-added reseller.

VAS

Acronym for Virtual Address Space. Virtual addresses that an operating system makes available to a process. See Virtual address space.

VB

Acronym for Visual Basic. See Visual Basic.

VB.NET

Acronym for Visual Basic .NET. A Microsoft high level programming language implemented on the .NET Framework. Successor to the original Visual Basic language. See Visual Basic .NET.

VBA

Acronym for Visual Basic for Applications. See Visual Basic for Applications.

VBScript

Visual Basic Script Edition, a subset of the classic Visual Basic language. Programs written in VBScript are saved in files with the .vbs extension. VBScript programs can be run with either of two host programs, cscript.exe or wscript.exe.

VDI

Acronym for Virtual Desktop Infrastructure. See Desktop virtualization.

VHD

Acronym for Virtual Hard Disk, a file format that represents a virtual hard disk drive. See VHD (file format).

VHDX

Acronym for Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk. See Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk Format Overview.

VLAN

Acronym for Virtual Local Area Network. See Virtual LAN.

VLK

Acronym for Volume License Key. Product key used for installing software licensed in bulk. Allows a single product key to be used for multiple installations. See Volume license key.

VLV

Acronym for Virtual List View. Searching capability allowing display of results without returning every entry. See Virtual List VIew (VLV) and Active Directory - What's it Good For?

VM

Acronym for Virtual Machine. See Virtual machine.

VMM

Acronym for Virtual Machine Manager. See System Center Virtual Machine Manager.

VMQ

Acronym for Virtual Machine Queue. A hardware virtualization technology. See VMQ.

VPN

Acronym for Virtual Private Network. Bridges a private network across the Internet (or other public network). See Virtual private network.

vRSS

Acronym for Virtual Receive Side Scaling. A feature of Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 R2. See Virtual Receive Side Scaling (vRSS) In Windows Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V.

VS

Acronym for Visual Studio. See Microsoft Visual Studio.

vSC

Acronym for virtual Smart Card.

VSO

Acronym for Visual Studio Online.

VSS

Acronym for Visual SourceSafe. A source code control software application for small software development projects. See Microsoft Visual SourceSafe. Also acronym for Volume Shadow Copy Service. A set of COM interfaces that implements a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes. See Volume Shadow Copy Service.

VSTA

Acronym for Visual Studio Tools for Applications. See Visual Studio Tools for Applications.

VSTO

Acronym for Visual Studio Tools for Office. See Visual Studio Tools for Office.

VSTS

Acronym for Visual Studio Team System. See Visual Studio Team System and the Microsoft Solutions Framework.

 

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W

W3C

Acronym for World Wide Web Consortium. The international standards organization for the World Wide Web (WWW or W3). See World Wide Web Consortium.

WAAD

Acronym for Windows Azure Active Directory. Also known as Azure Active Directory (AAD). Active Directory Domain Services in the Windows Azure cloud. Windows Azure is the Microsoft cloud computing platform, and one of the services available is Active Directory.

WABS

Acronym for Windows Azure BizTalk Services. See BizTalk Services.

WACK

Acronym for Windows App Certification Kit. See Using the Windows App Certification Kit.

WADL

Acronym for Web Application Description Language. A machine-readable XML description of HTTP-based web applications (typically REST web services). See Web Application Description Language.

WAIK

Acronym for Windows Automated Installation Kit. Microsoft tools and technologies to help deploy Windows operating systems. See Windows Automated Installation Kit.

WAN

Acronym for Wide Area Network. See Wide area network.

WAP

Acronym for Wireless Application Protocol. Standard for accessing information over mobile wireless networks. See Wireless Application Protocol. Also acronym for Windows Azure Pack (formerly Windows Azure Services for Windows Server). See Windows Azure Pack for Windows Server.

WATM

Acronym for Windows Azure Traffic Manager. Tool that allows control of the distribution of user traffic to specified endpoints. See Traffic Mangager Overview.

WBC

Acronym for Write Back Cache. A high speed disk or memory cache where the cpu first writes data. Then during idle machine cycles the data can be written from the cache into memory or onto disk. See Cache (computing).

WCE

Acronym for Windows CE. See Windows CE.

WCF

Acronym for Windows Communication Foundation. See Windows Communication Foundation.

WDM

Acronym for Windows Driver Model. Formerly known as the Win32 Driver Model. Framework for device drivers.

WEC

Acronym for Windows Embedded Compact. See Windows Embedded Compact.

WEF

Acronym for Windows Event Forwarding. See Use Windows Event Forwarding to help with intrusion detection.

WF

Acronym for Workflow Foundation. See Windows Workflow Foundation.

WFP

Acronym for Windows Filtering Platform. See Windows Filtering Platform.

WHATWG

Acronym for Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group. See WHATWG.

WHS

Acronym for Windows Home Server. See Windows Home Server.

WIA

Acronym for Windows Image Acquisition. See Windows Image Acquisition (WIA).

WID

Acronym for Windows Internal Database. Used by Windows Server Update Services (WSUS), Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS), and Windows System Resource Manager. See Windows Internal Database Overview.

WIF

Acronym for Windows Identity Foundation. See Windows Identity Foundation.

WinCE

Acronym for Windows CE. An operating system for embedded systems. See Windows CE.

WinPE

Acronym for Windows Preinstallation Environment. Also Windows PE. A lightweight version of Windows used for deployment or troubleshooting. See Windows Preinstallation Environment.

WinRM

Acronym for Windows Remote Management. Microsoft implementation of WS-Management Protocol, a standard Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)-based, firewall-friendly protocol that allows hardware and operating systems from different vendors to interoperate. See Windows Remote Management.

WinRT

Acronym for Windows RunTime, or Windows RT. An edition of Windows only available pre-installed on PCs or tablets powered by ARM processors. Designed for improved battery life on thin, lightweight devices running cloud-enabled, touch-enabled, web-connected applications. Previously called Windows on ARM (WOA). See Windows 8 and 8.1 Preview, Editions (SKUs) and features.

WINS

Acronym for Windows Internet Naming Service, or alternatively, Windows Internet Name Service. Resolves computer NetBIOS names into IP Addresses. See Windows Internet Name Service.

WMF

Acronym for Windows Management Framework. See Description of WMF 4.0 for Windows 7 SP1, Windows Embedded Standard 7 SP1, and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1. Also acronym for Windows Metafile. See Windows Metafile.

WMI

Acronym for Windows Management Instrumentation. WMI is management technology allowing scripts and programs to monitor and control managed resources throughout the network. Resources include hard drives, file systems, operating system settings, processes, services, shares, registry settings, networking components, event logs, users, and groups. See Windows Management Instrumentation.

WMP

Acronym for Windows Media Player. See Windows Media Player.

WOA

Acronym for Windows On ARM. Windows pre-installed on an ARM processor. Now called Windows RT (WinRT). See Windows RT.

WOW

Acronym for Windows On Windows Systems. An application compatibility layer in 32-bit Windows that provides support for legacy 16-bit (Win16) applications. More recently, WOW64 provides support for running 32-bit applications on 64-bit versions of Windows. See Windows on Windows.

WPAD

Acronym for Web Proxy Autodiscovery Protocol, which allows a web browser to automatically detect proxy settings. See Web Proxy Autodiscovery Protocol.

WPF

Acronym for Windows Presentation Foundation. See Windows Presentation Foundation.

WPT

Acronym for Windows Performance Toolkit. Tools for the analysis of performance problems. See  Windows Performance Toolkit Technical Reference.

WSE

Acronym for Windows Server Essentials. Formerly Windows Small Business Server. See Windows Server Essentials (Small Business Server).

WQL

Acronym for WMI Query Language, as subset of ANSI Structured Query Language (SQL) used to query WMI namespaces. See WQL.

WS

Acronym for Windows Server. A group of server operating systems from Microsoft. See Windows Server.

WSAD

Acronym for Windows Server Active Directory. On premises Active Directory, as apposed to the cloud based Azure Active Directory (AAD)

WS-Federation

Acronym for Web Services-Federation. An identity federation specification. See Understanding WS-Federation.

WSG

Acronym for Windows Server Gateway. See Windows Server Gateway.

WSH

Acronym for Windows Script Host, an ActiveX scripting host providing an environment for the execution of scripts using one of several scripting engines or languages, such as VBScript.

WSIG

Acronym for Web Services Interoperability Guidance. Guidance for interoperability between web services using .NET Framework and other technologies.

WSS

Acronym for Windows SharePoint Services. See SharePoint.

WSUS

Acronym for Windows Server Update Services. Software to manage the distribution of Microsoft updates and hotfixes to computers in a corporate environment. See Windows Server Update Services.

WUA

Acronym for Windows Update Agent. See Windows Update Agent.

WWF

Acronym for Windows Workflow Foundation. Technology that provides an API, an in-process workflow engine, and a rehostable designer to implement long-running processes as workflows within .NET applications. See Windows Workflow Foundation.

WYSIWYG

It stands for What You See Is What You Get, a category of web page editor that incorporates graphical editing more than through code. See WYSIWYG.

WYSIWYM

It stands for What You See Is What You Mean. Unlike WYSIWYG, this type of editor relies solely on code for editing. See WYSIWYM.

 

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X

XAML

Acronym for Extensible Application Markup Language. Declarative XML-based language used for initializing structured values and objects. See Extensible Application Markup Language.

XML

Acronym for Extensible Markup Language, for encoding documents in a format that can be read by both humans and machines. See XML.

XNA

Set of tools based on the .NET Framework for video game development and management. See Microsoft XNA.

X.500

Computer networking standards for directory services. Developed by ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union, Telecommunications sector), formerly CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee). See X.500.

X.509

An ITU-T cryptography standard for a Public Key Infrastrucure (PKI) and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI). Includes standards for public key certificates, certificate revocation lists (CRLs), attribute certificates (CAs), and a certificate path validation algorithm. See X.509.

XSLT

Acronym for Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations. A language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents or other objects. See XSLT.

 

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Y

YB

Acronym for YottaBytes, or 1.2089 x 10^24 bytes (1024 ZB). See Yottabyte.

 

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Z

ZLE

Acronym for Zero-Latency Enterprise. Any strategy that exploits the immediate exchange of information across technical and organizational boundaries to achieve business benefit. For example, technical boundaries exist between different operating systems, database management systems and programming languages. "Immediate" implies being fast enough to bring all of the business benefits that simultaneous knowledge can potentially achieve. Latency cannot literally be zero in any real system because computers need time to "think."

ZB

Acronym for ZettaBytes, or 1.1806 x 10^21 bytes (1,024 EB). See Zettabyte.

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See Also

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