This article is a feature comparison list between SharePoint 2013 and SharePoint 2016 including the Standard and Enterprise features. Please see the table below for comparison across SharePoint versions. The table will compare Content Features Only.

Content features SharePoint Foundation 2013 SharePoint Server 2013 Standard CAL SharePoint Server 2013 Enterprise CAL SharePoint Server 2016 Standard CAL SharePoint Server 2016 Enterprise CAL
Accessibility Standards Support Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Asset Library Enhancements/Video Support No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Auditing No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Auditing & Reporting (e.g. doc edits, policy edits, deletes) No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Content Organizer No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Design Manager Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Document Sets No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Document Translation in Word Online Yes3 Yes 3 Yes 3 Yes Yes
eDiscovery Search No Yes7 Yes 7 Yes Yes
eDiscovery Hold No7 No 7 Yes 7 No Yes
eDiscovery Export No7 No Yes 7 No Yes
Email enabled lists and libraries Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
External Sharing: External Access No No No No No
External Sharing: Guest Link No No No No No
Folder Sync No8 Yes Yes Yes Yes
IRM using Azure Rights Management No Yes Yes Yes Yes
IRM using Windows Server AD RMS Yes5 Yes 5 Yes 5 Yes Yes
Managed Metadata Service No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Metadata-driven Navigation No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Multi-stage Disposition No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Office Online (edit) Yes3 Yes3 Yes 3 Yes Yes
Office Online (view) Yes3 Yes3 Yes 3 Yes Yes
Office Web Apps Server integration Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
PowerPoint Automation Services No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Preservation hold library No No Yes No Yes
Quick Edit Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Records management No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Recycle Bin (SharePoint admin center) No No No No No
Recycle Bin (site collection) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Related Items Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Rich Media Management No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Shared Content Types No Yes Yes Yes Yes
SharePoint Translation Services No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Site mailbox No Yes4 Yes4 Yes Yes
Surveys No Yes3 Yes3 Yes Yes
Unique Document IDs No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Video Search No No Yes No Yes
WCM: Analytics No Yes2 Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Catalog No No Yes No Yes
WCM: Category page and catalog item page
WCM: Search web parts No No Yes No Yes
WCM: Cross-Site Publishing No No Yes No Yes
WCM: Designer Tools No Yes Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Faceted navigation No No Yes No Yes
WCM: Image Renditions No Yes Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Managed navigation No Yes Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Mobile and Device Rendering No Yes Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Multiple Domains Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Recommendations No Yes Yes Yes Yes
WCM: Search Engine Optimizations (SEO) No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Word Automation Services No Yes Yes Yes Yes
2   Only Search analytics is available to SharePoint Server 2013 Standard CAL customers. Usage analytics is not available.
3   Requires connection to Office Web Apps Server 2013 and an Office desktop suite license, such as Office Professional Plus or Office Standard.
4   Requires connection to Microsoft Exchange Server or Microsoft Exchange Online to enable integrated features.
5   Windows Server AD RMS is an on-premises server that must be purchased and managed separately by the customer in order to enable supported IRM features.
7   When you use eDiscovery features, the licensing requirement for a plan that permits that feature applies to all end users that are part of the eDiscovery action (Search, Hold, Export).
8   Folder sync with the OneDrive for Business sync client is no longer officially supported.

Reference:

This is based on SharePoint 2016 RTM release as per Technet SharePoint feature availability across on-premises solutions 

See Also:

You can download an Excel spreadsheet from the Technet Gallery.