In this article, let's list feature comparisons between SharePoint 2013 vs. SharePoint 2016 including the Standard and Enterprise Features. Please see below table for comparison across SharePoint versions. Below table will compare Search Features Only.

Search features SharePoint Foundation 2013 SharePoint Server 2013 Standard CAL SharePoint Server 2013 Enterprise CAL SharePoint Server 2016 Standard CAL SharePoint Server 2016 Enterprise CAL
Advanced Content Processing Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Continuous crawls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Custom entity extraction No No Yes No Yes
Deep links No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Event-based relevancy No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Expertise Search No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Extensible content processing No No Yes No Yes
Graphical refiners No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hybrid search No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Manage search schema Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
On-premises search index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Phonetic name matching No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Query rules—Add promoted results No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Query rules—advanced actions No No Yes No Yes
Query spelling correction Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Query suggestions No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Query throttling No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Quick preview Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ranking models No Yes 9 Yes Yes Yes
Refiners Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
RESTful Query API/Query OM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Result sources Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Search connector framework No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Search results sorting Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Search vertical: “Conversations” No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Search vertical: “People” No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Search vertical: “Video” No No Yes No Yes
“This List” searches No Yes Yes Yes Yes
  9   SharePoint Online customers need to download and install the free Rank Model Tuning App in order to create and customize ranking models.  

Reference:

This is based on SharePoint 2016 RTM release as per TechNet SharePoint feature availability across on-premises solutions

See Also:

You can download the Excel file from the TechNet Gallery.