We are all familiar with the ASP.NET HttpHandler and HttpModules but unfortunately both are gone in Asp.Net Core 1.0. Don't worry!! They are replaced with an efficient and easy-to-implement approach called "Middleware." We can say reusable classes are middleware or middleware components.

In the ASP.NET, both HttpHandler and HttpModules are configured through webconfig but in the Middleware, these are configured via code rather than web.config. We can add the middleware components code in Startup.cs file in ASP.NET Core 1.0.

Before reading this article you must read following articles for ASP.NET Core knowledge.

Built-in Middleware

The following are the Built-in Middlewares in ASP.Net Core 1.0.

Pic Source By : Microsoft ASP.NET Core Documents

Single Request Delegate

  • app.Run
  • app.Use


App.Run is a single request delegate that handles all requests. If you want to call the next delegate request then you can use "next" keyword in lambda expression. The Run method short-circuits the pipeline or terminates the pipeline ( It will not call a next request delegate). Run method should only be called at the end of your pipeline or it will call at last.

Example app.Run

app.Run(async (context) =>
     await context.Response.WriteAsync(" Welcome to Dotnet Core !!");  


The following code clearly mentions that app.Run method should only be called at the end of your pipeline or it will be called last. App use will take care of the next delegate request with the help of  "next"

Example app.Use

app.Use(async (context, next) =>
      await context.Response.WriteAsync(" Hello World !!");
      await next.Invoke();//mandatory for invoking next delegates request
 app.Run(async (context) =>
     await context.Response.WriteAsync(" Welcome to Dotnet Core !!");  


The new folder in ASP.NET Core is wwwroot and it stores all the StaticFiles in our project. The StaticFiles means that the HTML files, CSS files, image files, and JavaScript files which are sent to the users' browsers should be stored inside the wwwroot folder.

Startup Page

Right Click "wwwroot" and click Add -> New Item -> Click "Client-side" sub category and select HTML Page.

Pic Source By: RajeeshMenoth Blog

HTML Index Page Code

Pic Source By: RajeeshMenoth Blog


When we run our application then you will get the following:  Why are our StaticFiles not running? Because StaticFiles are placed inside the "wwwroot" and when we want to call those files in ASP.NET Core 1.0 then you must install the StaticFiles package manager for ASP.NET Core through NuGet.

Pic Source By: RajeeshMenoth Blog

StaticFiles Configuration ASP.NET Core 1.0

Go to NuGet Package Manager and Type StaticFiles in "Browse" Category. Then it will display many staticfiles details but we need to choose and Install "Microsoft.AspNetCore.StaticFiles"

Pic Source By: RajeeshMenoth Blog


Now Staticfiles version is updated in the project.json file.

 "dependencies": {
 "Microsoft.NETCore.App": {
 "version": "1.0.1",
 "type": "platform"
 "Microsoft.AspNetCore.Diagnostics": "1.0.0",
 "Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.IISIntegration": "1.0.0",
 "Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel": "1.0.1",
 "Microsoft.Extensions.Logging.Console": "1.0.0",
 "Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc": "1.0.1",
 "Microsoft.AspNetCore.StaticFiles": "1.1.0"  // Staticfiles dependency
 "tools": {
 "Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.IISIntegration.Tools": "1.0.0-preview2-final"
 "frameworks": {
 "netcoreapp1.0": {
 "imports": [
 "buildOptions": {
 "emitEntryPoint": true,
 "preserveCompilationContext": true
 "runtimeOptions": {
 "configProperties": {
 "System.GC.Server": true
 "publishOptions": {
 "include": [
 "scripts": {
 "postpublish": [ "dotnet publish-iis --publish-folder %publish:OutputPath% --framework %publish:FullTargetFramework%" ]

Extension Methods

We can add this following method in "Startup.Cs" and every extension method runs as a sequence.

  • UseStaticFiles()
  • UseDefaultFiles()
  • UseFileServer()


We can call the UseStaticFiles extension method from Startup.Cs and it makes the files in web wwwroot or web root as servable.


app.UseDefaultFiles(); // Call first before app.UseStaticFiles()
app.UseStaticFiles(); // For the wwwroot folder


Now runs the application and it shows the result as the following figure.

Pic Source By : RajeeshMenoth Blog


UseDefaultFiles must be called before UseStaticFiles to serve the default file in client-side browser. If you mention UseStaticFiles() method after UseDefaultFiles() then it will run UseStaticFiles() method as default and automatically terminate other files coming after UseStaticFiles() method.

UseDefaultFiles() will only search for the following files in "wwwroot". If any of the files are detected first in "wwwroot" then that file runs as default in a client browser.

  • default.html
  • index.html
  • default.htm
  • index.htm
If you want to run other files by default then check the following code in Startup.Cs


DefaultFilesOptions DefaultFile = new DefaultFilesOptions();


It combines the functionality of UseStaticFiles() and UseDefaultFiles(). So we can reduce the code and handle Staticfiles and Default Files as a single file. UseFileServer() will take care of the static file as the default start page.


app.UseFileServer(); // Combines UseStaticFiles() and UseDefaultFiles()



We learned Middleware & StaticFiles in Asp.Net Core 1.0, and hope you liked this article. Please share your valuable suggestions and feedback.